Rubidium is 37th element on the periodic table. The element of group-1, rubidium, has the symbol ‘Rb‘. Rubidium is an acidic metal. Rubidium bonds are formed by its – valence electrons. This article explains in detail how rubidium’s valence electrons work. You will learn more about this topic after you have read this article.
- Place of strontium in the periodic table
- Rubidium Basic Facts
- Biological function
- Rubidium Health effects
- Rubidium Physical Data
- What are the valence electronics of rubidium?
- How many protons or electrons does rubidium contain?
- How do I calculate the number valence electrons within a rubidium atom
- Determining the total amount of electrons present in rubidium
- Perform electron configuration of rubidium
- Determine the valenceshell and calculate the total electrons
- How many valence elements does rubidium-ion(Rb +), have?
- What is the valency for rubidium?
In the 1760s, the unusual behavior of lithium potassium mineral Lepidolite was discovered. When it was heated up, it became frothy and hardened into glass. Although it contained lithium and potassium, it also contained a secret ingredient: rubidium.
Gustav Kirchhoff of the University of Heidelberg and Robert Bunsen disintegrated the ore in acid. They then precipitated the potassium, which carried down another heavy alkali metallic. After carefully boiling the precipitate, they removed the more insoluble potassium and confirmed their new element by looking at the atomic spectrum. Two intense ruby red lines were visible in this precipitate, which indicated a new element. They named it after this colour.
There are many electronic and chemical applications for rubidium’s compound compounds. Rubidium metal is easy to vaporize and has a convenient range of spectral absorption, making it an ideal target for Laser manipulation of Atoms . Rubidium is not known to be a nutrient for living creatures. However, rubidium is a similar nutrient to potassium ions. It’s actively taken up by animal cells and used in the same way.
1928 saw the production of a sample pure rubidium-metal.
Place of strontium in the periodic table
Rubidium Basic Facts
- Atomic Number: 37
- Symbol: Rb
- Atomic Weight: 85.4678
- Electron Configuration: [Kr] 5s1
- Discovery: R. Bunsen, G. Kirchoff 1861 (Germany), discovered rubidium in the mineral petalite via its dark red spectral lines.
It is not used in research. It has been used to make special types and glasses, as well as in photocells that remove traces oxygen from vacuum tubes.
It can be easily ionized, so it was considered to be used in ion engines. However, it was found to not be as effective as caesium. It has been suggested that it could be used as a fluid in vapour turbines or thermoelectric generators.
To give fireworks a purple hue, rubidium Nitrate is often used.
Rubidium does not have any known biological functions and is therefore non-toxic. Due to its chemical similarity with potassium, we absorb it through our food. An average person has about half of a gram of Rubidium.
It is slightly radioactive so it can be used to locate brain tumors.
Rubidium contains two naturally occurring isotopes Rubidium-85-8 and Rubidium-87. Rubidium 87 is a radioactive Iotope that is used for determining the age of old rock. It has a half-life that is 49 billion years. It is used as a frequency standard for high-accuracy timing equipment like GPS receivers. It is used in laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation.
Rubidium Health effects
Exposition: water reactive. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Rubidium can cause thermal burns if it ignites. Rubidium reacts easily with skin moisture, forming rubidium hydroxyide. This can cause chemical burns on the skin and eyes. Overexposure can cause skin and eye damage. Loss of weight, anxiety, hyperirritability, skin ulcers and ataxia are some of the symptoms. Exposure can lead to serious medical problems, such as potassium imbalance and heart patients.
Rubidium Physical Data
- Density (g/cc): 1.532
- Covalent Radius (pm): 216
- Ionic Radius: 147 (+1e)
- Melting Point (K): 312.2
- Atomic Radius (pm): 248
- Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 55.9
- Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.360
- Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 75.8
- Appearance: soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal
- CAS Registry Number: 7440-17-7
- Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 2.20
- Pauling Negativity Number: 0.82
- Oxidation States: +1
- First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 402.8
- Lattice Structure: Body-Centered Cubic
- Lattice Constant (Å): 5.590
- Boiling Point (K): 961
What are the valence electronics of rubidium?
The valence electrons is the number of electrons within the last orbit (shell). The valence of rubidium is the sum of all electrons found in the shell following the configuration of rubidium. The element’s properties are determined by the presence of valence electrons, which also play a role in bond formation.
How many protons or electrons does rubidium contain?
The nucleus is located at the center of an atom. In the nucleus are protons and neutrons. The atomic quantity of rubidium has 37. The number of protons in a substance is known as the atomic number. This means that there are 37 protons in rubidium. A circular shell located outside the nucleus houses electrons equal to protons. This means that a rubidium-atom contains a total of 327 electrons.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How do I calculate the number valence electrons within a rubidium atom
Following a few steps, you can determine the valence of electrons. The electron configuration is one. It is impossible to determine valence electron without knowing electron configuration. It is simple to identify the configuration of the electrons for all elements.
However, it is possible to identify valence elements by simply arranging electrons in accordance with the Bohr principle. This is how we’ll find out the valence neutrons of rubidium.
Determining the total amount of electrons present in rubidium
We first need to determine the total number electrons in the rubidiumatom. You must know the number protons in rubidium to find the number of electrons. You will also need to know what the atomic numbers of the elements of rubidium are in order to determine the number of protons.
The periodic table can be used to calculate the atomic numbers. The periodic table provides information on the atomic number for rubidium elements. The number of protons in an atom is called the “atomic number”. Additionally, electrons equal to protons can be found outside of the nucleus.
We can thus finally conclude that the atomic number of the rubidium atom has an electron count equal to it. We can see that the atomic numbers of rubidium are 37 from the periodic tables. The total electron count of the rubidium-atom is therefore 37.
Perform electron configuration of rubidium
The arrangement of the electrons of rubidium is required in this step. We know that rubidium has a total number of 37 electrons. The first shell of rubidium is composed of two electrons. Second shell contains eight electrons. Third shell has eighteen. Fourth shell has eighteen. Fifth shell has an electron. The number of electrons in a shell of rubidium is 2, 8 and 18, respectively.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
Determine the valenceshell and calculate the total electrons
The third step involves diagnosing the valenceshell. The valenceshell is the shell that follows the electron configuration. The total number electrons within a valenceshell are called valence electrons. The electron configuration in rubidium shows that every shell of rubidium contains an electron. Accordingly, the valence elements of rubidium (Rb), are one.
How many valence elements does rubidium-ion(Rb +), have?
The elements that have 1 to 3 electrons in their shells donate their electrons during bond formation. Cations are elements which donate electrons in order to form bonds. The rubidium-atom donates one electron from the last shell to make bonds, and then turns into a Rubidium Ion (Rb +). This is why rubidium can be described as a cation element.
The electron configuration for rubidium (Rb+), is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6. This electron configuration shows the rubidium-ion (Rb+) has four shells, and the final shell has eight electrons. The electron configuration shows how the rubidium Ion has acquired the electron configuration of Krypton. The eight electrons in the rubidium (Rb+) valence electrons are eight.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
What is the valency for rubidium?
Valency is the ability for an element’s one atom to bond with another during the formation a molecule. The element’s valency refers to the number of unpaired elements in its last orbit.
The electron configuration shows that rubidium has an unpaired electron (5s1) in its last orbit. Accordingly, rubidium’s valency is 1.
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.122. ISBN 1439855110.
- B. Smith Hopkins, Chemistry of the Rarer Elements, 1923, D.C. Heath and Company, p50-51