The eighth element in the periodic table is oxygen (O), and its symbol is “O”. The standard atomic weight of oxygen is 15.99903. Through valence electrons, oxygen participates in the formation bonds.It is Earth’s most common element. After hydrogen (and Helium), it is also the third-most abundant element within the universe. Two atoms from the element bond to create dioxygen at standard temperatures and pressure. By reacting with almost any element, oxygen forms compounds. In many cases, this is accompanied by the development of heat and light, which are known as combustions. The most important compound it is water. Currently, diatomic oxygen gas makes up 20.95% of Earth’s atmosphere. However, this has changed significantly over time. Nearly half of the Earth’s crust is made up of oxygen in the form oxides.
- Position of Oxygen in the periodic table
- Biological role
- Natural abundance
- The environmental effects of oxygen
- Isolation of Oxygen
- Health consequences of oxygen
- Oxygen Compounds
- What are the valence electrons for oxygen (O)?
- What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does the oxygen (O) atom contain?
- How can you determine the number of valence elements in an oxygen (O) atom?
- Calculating the number of electrons in oxygen (O)
- You will need to perform electron configurations of oxygen (O)
- Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
- Compound formation of oxygen using valence electrons
- How many valence electrons does oxygen ion(O2-) have?
- What is the valency for oxygen (O)?
Before the discovery of oxygen in 1774, several chemists had produced oxygen. However, they did not recognize it as an element distinct from other elements. Although Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele independently discovered oxygen, Priestly is often credited with the discovery. Both were able to make oxygen by heating HgO (mercuric oxide) Priestley called the gas he produced during his experiments “dephlogisticated” and Scheele called it his “fire air”. Antoine Lavoisier incorrectly believed that oxygen was required to form all acids. He created the name oxygen.
The third most abundant element in the universe is oxygen. It makes up almost 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere. Nearly half of the Earth’s crust is made up of oxygen, which accounts for two thirds the human body’s mass and nine tenths the water.
The steel industry is the largest commercial user of oxygen gas. It is also used to make a variety of chemicals, including hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. It can also be used to make epoxyethane or ethylene oxide, used as an antifreeze, and to make polyester and chloroethene which is the precursor of PVC. Oxy-acetylene welding is performed using oxygen gas. The treatment of sewage and industrial effluent is a growing application of oxygen gas.
Position of Oxygen in the periodic table
Around 2 billion years ago, oxygen was first found in Earth’s atmosphere. It was formed from blue-green algae photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a process that uses the energy of the sun to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and the hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide to create biomass.
Living things require oxygen to breathe in energy. Carbon dioxide is the oxygen that returns to the atmosphere. The oxygen gas is quite soluble in water. This makes it possible to live aerobically in rivers, lakes, and oceans.
The atmosphere is 21% in volume. This is halfway between 17% and 25%, which makes breathing difficult for people who are not well-acclimatized. It and its compounds account for 49.2% of the Earth’s crust and approximately two-thirds the human body. It can be prepared in the laboratory by electrolysis of water, or by adding a manganese(IV), oxide catalyst to aqueous hydroperoxide.
Two main methods are used to extract oxygen gas. The distillation of liquid oxygen is the first. The second method is to dry out clean air using a zeolite, which absorbs nitrogen and releases oxygen. An alternative method that gives oxygen of higher purity is to pass the air through a partially permeable ceramic membrane.
High concentrations of oxygen encourage rapid combustion, making them a fire- and explosion hazard when fuels are present. Because the oxygen atmosphere at test launchpad was at normal atmospheric pressure, the fire that claimed the lives of Apollo 1 crew members spread quickly.
Isolation of Oxygen
Fractional distillation is a method that isolates oxygen. This involves containing atmospheric air and cooling it down to -181@ Celsius. The oxygen then becomes liquid. The liquid oxygen is then extracted. You can keep it in liquid form at low temperatures or convert it into a gas.
|boiling point||−183.0 °C (−297.4 °F)|
|melting point||−218.4 °C (−361.1 °F)|
|density (1 atm, 0 °C)||1.429 g/litre|
|oxidation states||−1, −2, +2 (in compounds with fluorine)|
Because oxygen is an essential component of DNA and nearly all biologically important compounds, all life forms require it. It is even more essential for animals to have a constant supply of oxygen in order to survive. The iron atom in hemoglobin at the heart of the blood transports oxygen to the tissues.
All living things require oxygen in order to breathe. However, too much oxygen can cause lung damage. Lung damage can result from prolonged exposure to high levels of oxygen. Lung damage can be caused by prolonged exposure to 50-100% oxygen at normal air pressure for a long time.
The reactive element oxygen is highly reactive. The noble gases Helium, and neon is the only element oxygen doesn’t form compounds with. This is due to their incredible stability.
- H2O – water
- Al2O – aluminum oxide (in corundum and bauxite)
- Carbon Dioxide (product from respiration) – CO2
- C2H4O Ethyleneoxid (used for antifreeze production)
- Fe2O3 Iron(III) Oxide (rust).
- SiO2 – Silicon dioxide (found in granite or sand).
- CaCO3. – Calcium Carbonate (in silicates and limestone)
What are the valence electrons for oxygen (O)?
Non-metallic elements include oxygen. Oxygen belongs to group 16. The valence electron refers to the number of electrons remaining in the last orbit. The valence electrons are the total number of electrons remaining in the shell after the electron configuration is oxygen(O). The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons. They also participate in the formation bonds. The electron configuration for oxygen shows that the final shell contains six electrons. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for oxygen. You can read it if desired.
What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does the oxygen (O) atom contain?
The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. The atomic number of oxygen 8 The number of protons in the oxygen is called the atomic number. The number of protons found in oxygen is 8. The nucleus contains an electron shell that is equal to the protons. This means that oxygen atoms contain a total eight electrons.
The difference between the number atomic masses and number of elements is what determines the number or neutrons within an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).
We know that the atomic quantity of oxygen (O) is 8 and that the atomic mass number for O is 16 (15.999). Neutron (n) = 16 – 8 = 8. The number of neutrons found in oxygen (O) is therefore 8.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How can you determine the number of valence elements in an oxygen (O) atom?
These are the steps to determine the valence electron. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of any element. It is easy to determine the valence of any element by knowing the electron configuration. This article contains details about the electron configuration. You can find it here. This article focuses on electron configuration.
However, it is possible to identify valence electrons by placing electrons according the Bohr principle. We will now learn how to identify the valence electron for oxygen.
Calculating the number of electrons in oxygen (O)
First, we must know the number of electrons within the oxygen atom. You need to know how many protons are in oxygen to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons, you must know the atomic number for the oxygen (O) element. A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the information necessary to determine the atomic numbers of the oxygen elements.
The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons. This means that electrons are equal to the atomic numbers in an oxygen atom. The atomic number for oxygen can be seen in the periodic table at 8. This means that an oxygen atom contains eight electrons.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
You will need to perform electron configurations of oxygen (O)
Important step 2 This step involves arranging the electrons of oxygen. Eight electrons are the total number of oxygen atoms. The electron configuration of oxygen shows there are six electrons in the L shell, and two in the K shell.
This means that the first oxygen shell has two electrons and the second has six. The electron configuration of oxygen through sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p4.
Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
The third step is to determine the valence. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. A valence electron is the total number of electrons found in a valenceshell. The electron configuration of oxygen indicates that the last oxygen shell has six electrons (2s2 2p4). The valence electrons for oxygen are therefore six.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
Compound formation of oxygen using valence electrons
Through its valence electrons, oxygen participates in the formation bonds. This valence electron is involved in the formation bonds with other elements’ atoms. By sharing electrons with hydrogen, oxygen atoms can form bonds.
The electron configuration for hydrogen indicates that hydrogen only has one electron. Water(H2O) compounds are made by two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. The oxygen atom then completes its octave, and gains the electron configuration of neon.
Hydrogen, on the other hand acquires the electronic configuration of Helium. Covalent bonding allows an oxygen atom to share electrons with two hydrogen molecules to form the H2O (water) compound.
How many valence electrons does oxygen ion(O2-) have?
The electron configuration has revealed that the last shell of an oxygen atom contains six electrons. It is evident that the last shell of an oxygen atom contains six electrons after arranging them. The valence electrons for oxygen in this instance are 6. This is what we know. During bond formation, the elements with 5, 6, or 7 electrons in their last shell (orbit) receive electrons from the shell that contains them. Anions are elements that have electrons and can form bonds. Oxygen, for example, is an anion element.
The last shell receives electrons during the formation of oxygen bonds and transforms them into oxygenions (O2-). The electron configuration for oxygen ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of oxygenions shows that oxygen has two shells, while the second shell contains eight electrons. The electron configuration indicates that the oxygen ion is now and has the electron configuration of neon . In this instance, the valence for oxygen ions is -2. The valence electrons for oxygen ions (O2) have eight electrons in their last shell.
What is the valency for oxygen (O)?
Valency (or valence) is the ability of an element’s atom to join another atom in the formation of a molecule. The valency is the number of unpaired electrons found in an element’s last orbit. O*(8) is the electron configuration of oxygen when it’s excited. It’s O*(8) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1.
The electron configuration of oxygen (O) indicates that there are two unpaired electrons within the last orbital.
The valency of oxygen is therefore 2.
- Atomic Symbol (on Periodic Table of Elements: O
- 8. Atomic Number (number protons in the nucleus).
- The average mass of an atom is called the atomic weight. It is 15.9994
- Phase at Room Temperature – Gas
- O-16 is the most common isotope (99.757 per cent natural abundance).
- Melting Point: minus 361.82 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 218.79 degrees Celsius)
- Density: 0.001429 g per cubic centimeter
- Boiling Point: minus 297.31 degrees F (minus 182.95 degrees C)
- Number of stable isotopes (atoms with different numbers of neutrons from the same element): 11; Three
- Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
- Dole, Malcolm (1965). “The Natural History of Oxygen” (PDF). The Journal of General Physiology.
- Emsley, John (2001). “Oxygen”. Nature’s Building Blocks: An A–Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). “Oxygen Is the High-Energy Molecule Powering Complex Multicellular Life: Fundamental Corrections to Traditional Bioenergetics” ACS Omega 5: 2221–33.