Carbon is the sixth element on the periodic table. It also makes up the first element of group 14. Carbon’s atomic mass is 12.0096. Its symbol is “C”. Through valence electrons, carbon participates in the formation bonds.
Carbon is the 15th-most abundant element in Earth’s crust and fourth in the universe in terms of mass, after hydrogen, Helium and oxygen. Because of its abundance and unique organic substances, it is a common element in all of the known life. It is second in the human body, at 18.5%, after oxygen.
- Position of Carbon in the periodic table
- The nuclear properties
- Natural abundance
- The element carbon in organic chemistry
- Biological role
- What are the valence electrons in carbon?
- What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does the carbon (C) atom contain?
- How can you find out the number of valence neutrons in a carbon-atom?
- Calculating the number of electrons present in carbon (C)
- You will need to perform electron configuration of carbon (C)
- Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
- By valence electrons, compound formation of carbon
- The ionic properties of carbon atoms
- What is the valency for carbon (C)?
Humans have known carbon since antiquity, unlike other elements. Carbon was used by ancient Sumerians and Egyptians to reduce different metals as early as 3750 BC. Carbon was used until 1789, when Antoine Lavoisier made the first ever listing of it as an element. There have been many other forms of carbon discovered, including graphite and graphene as well as fullerene. Fullerene was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996 to Robert Curl and Sir Harold Kroto. Carbon is still being actively studied and plays an important role in all areas of chemistry.
The unique property of carbon to form strong bonded chains is unmatched among elements. This ability is sealed off by hydrogenatoms. These hydrocarbons are most commonly used for fuels. They can be extracted from fossil fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas. A small, but significant fraction of this hydrocarbon is used to produce polymers, paints, solvents, plastics, and other products in the petrochemical industry.
Metal smelting uses impure carbon in the forms of coke (from coal), and charcoal (from wood). It is especially important for the iron and steel industries. Carbon fiber is a strong yet light material that has many applications. Carbon fibre is used in tennis rackets as well as skis, fishing rods and rockets. Graphite can be used to make pencils, brushes for electric motors, and furnace linings. Activated charcoal can be used to purify and filter. It can be found in kitchen extractor hoods and respirators.
Recent discoveries of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and atom-thin graphene sheets have revolutionized hardware development in the electronics industry as well as in nanotechnology. For drilling and cutting rocks, industrial diamonds can be used. Protective surfaces like razor blades can be protected with diamond films.
Position of Carbon in the periodic table
The nuclear properties
There are two stable carbon isotopes: carbon-12 (which is 98.93% of natural carbon) or carbon-13 (1.07%). 14 radioactive carbon isotopes exist, but carbon-14 has the longest half-life at 5,730 + 40 years.
The atomic weight is used as a presuperscript to the element’s symbol and the atomic number is used as a subscript. Thus, the isotope of carbon-12 is represented as 12 C. The isotope carbon-13, one of the stable nuclides is particularly interesting because its nuclear spinning gives response to a device called a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. This is useful for investigating the molecular structure of covalently bound compounds containing Carbon. This isotope can also be used to label compounds that will be subject to mass spectrometry analysis, which is another tool that is widely used to identify atoms or molecules.
Carbon can be found in the sun, as well as other stars. It is formed from the remnants of a supernova. It is created by nuclear fusion in larger stars. Graphite can be found in many places. Some meteorites contain microscopic crystals that can be used as diamond.
The mineral kimberlite is a source of natural diamonds. It can be found in Russia, Botswana and DR Congo as well as Canada. It is found in the atmospheres on many planets, most commonly as carbon dioxide. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is 390 ppm on Earth and this number is rising.
|atomic weight||12.0096 to 12.0116|
|boiling point||4,827 °C (8,721 °F)|
|melting point||3,550 °C (6,420 °F)|
|oxidation states||+2, +3, +4|
The element carbon in organic chemistry
Organic chemistry, one of the most important subfields of chemistry, is entirely based on the element carbon. Carbon is able to form strong bonds with other carbonatoms. This makes it one of the most important building blocks for organic compounds. Carbon can also form bonds with other elements like oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen. These bonds are the basis of functional groups that allow the creation of many compounds, from pharmaceuticals to dyes.
Carbon is vital to our existence. Because it can form many different chains with different lengths, carbon is essential for life. Once it was believed that carbon-based molecules of living matter could only be obtained from living organisms. They were believed to have a’spark for life’. In 1828, however, urea was synthesized from inorganic chemicals and both organic and inorganic branches of chemistry were merged.
Living organisms that don’t photosynthesise must rely on other living beings for carbon molecules. Their digestive systems convert carbohydrates into monomers, which they can then use to create their own cellular structures. These reactions are powered by respiration. Respiration is the process by which oxygen reacts with carbohydrates to make carbon dioxide and water. This reaction releases energy that is available to the cells.
What are the valence electrons in carbon?
The valence electrons are the total number of electrons found in the last shell following the electron configuration of carbon. The total number of electrons in a given orbit is called the valence electron. The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons. They also participate in the formation bonds.
The electron configuration of carbon indicates that the last carbon shell has four electrons. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for carbon. You can read it if desired.
What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does the carbon (C) atom contain?
The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. The Atomic Number of Carbon(C) Is 6. The number of protons is called the atomic number. Six protons are found in carbon. The nucleus contains an electron shell that is equal to six protons. A carbon atom can have six electrons.
The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n),= = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).
We know that the atomic numbers of carbon are 6 and 12. Neutron (n) = 12 – 6 = 6. The number of neutrons found in carbon(C), therefore, is 6.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How can you find out the number of valence neutrons in a carbon-atom?
These are the steps to determine the valence electron. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of any element. It is easy to determine the valence of any element by knowing the electron configuration.You can find it here. This article focuses on the electron configuration of carbon.
However, it is possible to identify valence electrons by placing electrons according the Bohr principle. We will now learn how to identify the valence electron in carbon.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
Calculating the number of electrons present in carbon (C)
First, we must know how many electrons are in each carbon atom. You need to know how many protons are in carbon to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons in carbon, you must know its atomic number. A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the information necessary to determine the atomic number for carbon elements.
The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons. This means that electrons are equal to the atomic numbers in carbon atoms. The atomic number for carbon can be seen in the periodic table at 6. This means that a carbon atom can have six electrons.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
You will need to perform electron configuration of carbon (C)
Important step 2 This step involves arranging the electrons of carbon. Carbon atoms contain six electrons. Carbon’s electron structure shows that there are four electrons in the L shell, and two in the K shell.
This means that the first carbon shell contains two electrons and the second has four. Through the sub-orbit, the electron configuration of carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2.
Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
The third step is to determine the valence. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. A valence electron is the sum of all electrons found in a valenceshell. The electron configuration of carbon indicates that the last carbon shell has four electrons (2s2 2p2). The valence electrons for carbon are therefore four.
By valence electrons, compound formation of carbon
Through its valence electrons, carbon participates in the formation bonds. We know that carbon has four valence electrons. This valence electron is involved in the formation bonds with other elements.
Carbon atoms create bonds by sharing electrons and hydrogen atoms. The electron configuration for hydrogen demonstrates that hydrogen only has one electron. By sharing electrons, four hydrogen atoms and one carb atom create methane (CH 4).
The result is that the carbon atom has completed its octave, and now acquires the electronic configuration of the neon. Hydrogen, on the other hand acquires the electronic configuration of Helium. Covalent bonding allows a carbon atom to share electrons with four hydrogen molecules in order to make methane (CH4).
The ionic properties of carbon atoms
The electron configuration for carbon atoms is 1s2 2s2 2p2. An anion element is carbon. An anion is a charge-neutral element that receives an electron to make it a negative ion. A carbon atom’s last orbit has four electrons. First, the carbon atom takes 2 electrons. Then 2 more electrons are needed to fill the octave.
Carbon atoms can take on electrons to become negative ions. Carbon is therefore an anion element.
What is the valency for carbon (C)?
Valency (or valence) is the ability of an element’s atom to join another atom in the formation of a molecule. The valency is the number of unpaired electrons found in an element’s last orbit. We know that the electron configuration for a carbon atom is usually 1s2 2s2 2p2.
The electron configuration of an element in its excited state determines its value. C*(6) is the electron configuration for carbon in an excited state. It is C*(6) = 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1. This electron configuration of carbon shows two unpaired electrons. The valency of the carbon-atom in this instance is 2.
The electron configuration of carbon can change again if the carbon atom is excited beyond this limit. C*(6) is the second electron configuration for a carbon atom when it is in an excited state. It is C*(6) = 1s2 2s1 2px1 2py1 2pz1. The carbon atom contains 4 unpaired electrons. In this example, the valency for the carbon atom would be 4.
The carbon atom’s last electron configuration (C) indicates that there is a maximum number of unpaired electrons in a carbon-atom.
Therefore, the valence of a carbon atom is 4. Therefore, the valency of carbon atoms is 2, 4.
- Atomic Symbol (on Periodic Table of Elements: C.
- Atomic Number (number protons in the nucleus). 6.
- 12.0107 is the average mass of an atom’s atomic weight.
- The most common isotopes are carbon-12 (6 protons and 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons), and carbon-13 (6 prototons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons).
- 2.2670 grams per cubic cmimeter.
- Melting Point: 6,422 degrees Fahrenheit (3,550 degrees Celsius).
- Boiling point: 6,872 F (3.800 C) (sublimation).
- Phase at Room Temperature : Solid.
- There are 15 isotopes total. There are two stable isotopes. These are atoms with different numbers of neutrons.
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