Fluorine (F) is the 9th and first elements in the periodic table. It also makes up group-17. Fluorine (F) is a halogen-element. Its symbol is “F”. Fluorine is involved in the formation bonds via valence electrons. It is the heaviest halogen, and it exists at normal conditions as a toxic, pale yellow diatomic gasoline. Its high ability to attract electrons and the small size of its molecules can be explained. It is the most negative element. However, it reacts with all elements, except argon and neon.
- Position of Fluorine in the periodic table
- Fluorine’s health effects
- Fluorine’s environmental effects
- Fluorine Chemistry & Compounds
- Natural abundance
- Fluorine isolution
- Biological role
- What are the valence electrons for fluorine (F)?
- What number of electrons, protons and neutrons does an F-atom contain?
- How can you calculate the number valence electrons within a fluorine (F) atom?
- Calculating the total number electrons in fluorine (F)
- Fluorine (F) needs to be electron-configured
- Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
- Fluorine compound formation by valence electrons
- What number of valence electrons does the fluorine ion (F –), have?
- What is the fluorine (F) valency?
The element was sought out by early chemists who tried to isolate it from different fluorides for many years. German chemist Karl O. Christie synthesized fluorine in 1986. His results were published in the journal Inorganic Chemistry. Although fluorine is not naturally found in the environment, scientists discovered small amounts in 2012 in antozonite which is a radioactive fluorite.
Before the Second World War, there was no commercial production. The development of the Atom Bomb and other nuclear energy projects made it possible to produce large quantities of fluorine. Fluorine salts (also known as fluorides) were used for decades in welding and frosting glass.
This element is needed to make uranium-hexafluoride. It is required by the nuclear power industry for the separation of uranium isotopes. It can also be used to produce sulfur hexafluoride which is an insulating gas in high-power electricity transformers.
In fact, fluorine is used in many fluorochemicals, including solvents and high-temperature plastics, such as Teflon (poly(tetrafluoroethene), PTFE). Teflon, which is known for its nonstick properties, is also used in frying pans. For etching glass from light bulbs, and similar purposes, hydrofluoric acid can be used.
Position of Fluorine in the periodic table
Fluorine’s health effects
Fluorine is naturally found in small amounts in water, air and plants. Fluorine is ingested by humans through drinking water, food, and air. In very small amounts, fluorine can be found almost anywhere. Tea and shellfish can contain large amounts of fluorine.
Fluorine is vital for maintaining the strength of our bones. Fluorine can protect us against dental decay if we apply toothpaste twice daily. Fluorine can be absorbed too often, which can lead to tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to the kidneys, bones and nerves.
Fluorine’s environmental effects
Fluorine in the air will settle into sediment if it reaches water. Fluorine that is found in soils will attach to soil particles. Fluorine can’t be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form.
Plants can accumulate fluorine from soils. The type of plant, the soil type and the amount of fluorine in the soil will affect the amount of fluorine that plants absorb. Low fluorine levels can lead to leaf damage and decline in growth for plants sensitive to fluorine. Too much fluoride, which is wheater, taken from the soil by roots or asdorbed by the leaves from the atmosphere, can slow down the growth of plants and decrease crop yields. Apricots and corns are more susceptible.
Fluorine Chemistry & Compounds
Fluorite, fluorspar, and cryolite are the most popular fluorine minerals. However, it can also be found in other minerals. It is the 13th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Fluorine can be made from the electrolysis in anhydrous hydrofluoric acids of potassium hydrogendifluoride solution (KHF2) and potassium hydrogendifluoride.
|boiling point||−188 °C (−306 °F)|
|melting point||−219.62 °C (−363.32 °F)|
|density (1 atm, 0 °C or 32 °F)||1.696 g/litre (0.226 ounce/gallon)|
As we know, elemental fluorine can be quite dangerous. Fluorine can be “easyly” obtained by electrolysis of potassium hydrofluoride solution in anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid. Pure hydrofluoric acid cannot be used because it does not conduct electricity. The hydroxide ions would turn into oxygen ions. The combination of potassium hydrogen difluoride with hydrogen fluoride results in low operating temperatures at 86.85@C, which reduces the need to have great cell insulation. An anode is made from hard, corrosive resistant carbon and the cathodes of an electrode cell are made from strong steel. Fluoride gas forms after the electrolysis process has ended.
Fluoride is an essential element for animals that strengthens teeth and bones. Fluoride is sometimes added to water. Fluorides are believed to prevent dental decay when they are below 2 parts per Million in drinking water. Fluoride above this level can cause enamel mottling in children’s teeth. Toothpaste can also contain fluoride. Fluoride is found in the average person’s body at 3 milligrams. Fluoride can be toxic. Fluorine from the elemental fluorine can be extremely toxic.
What are the valence electrons for fluorine (F)?
Fluorine (F) is a nonmetallic element. Fluorine is an element in group-17. The valence electron refers to the number of electrons remaining in the shell’s last orbit. The valence electrons are the total number of electrons found in the shell that contains fluorine after it has been converted to an electron configuration. The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons. They also participate in the formation bonds. The electron configuration for fluorine shows that there are seven electrons in the last shell (orbit) of fluorine. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for fluorine. You can read it if desired.
What number of electrons, protons and neutrons does an F-atom contain?
The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. The Atomic number of fluorine (F) Is 9. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The number of protons found in fluorine is nine. The nucleus contains an orbit (or circular shell) that houses electrons equal to protons. Fluorine atoms contain a total number of nine electrons.
The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).
We know that fluorine’s atomic number (F) is 9, and its atomic mass number (About 19.9984) is 19. Neutron (n) = 19 – 9 = 10. Fluorine (F) has a total of 10.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How can you calculate the number valence electrons within a fluorine (F) atom?
These are the steps to determine the valence electron. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of any element. It is easy to determine the valence of any element by knowing the electron configuration. This site has an article that explains the electron arrangement. You can find it here. This article focuses on electron configuration.
However, it is possible to identify valence electrons by placing electrons according the Bohr principle. We will now learn how to identify the valence electrons in fluorine (F).
Calculating the total number electrons in fluorine (F)
First, we must know the number of electrons in fluorine (F) atom. You need to know how many protons are in fluorine to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons, you must know the atomic number for the fluorine element.
A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the atomic number for fluorine (F) elements. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons.
This means that we can now say that the number of electrons in fluorine (F) atoms is equal to 9. The atomic number for fluorine (F) can be seen in the periodic table. The total number of electrons in a fluorine (F) atom is nine.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
Fluorine (F) needs to be electron-configured
Important step 2 This step involves the arrangement of the electrons in fluorine. The total number of electrons in fluorine atoms is nine. Fluorine’s electron configuration (F) shows there are two electrons within the K shell and seven inside the L shell. The electron configuration of fluorine (F) shows that the first shell(orbit), has two electrons, while the second shell has seven. Fluorine’s electron configuration through the sub-orbit can be found as 1s2 2s2 2p5.
Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
The third step is to determine the orbit of the valence shell. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. A valence electron is the total number of electrons found in a valenceshell. Fluorine’s electron configuration (F) shows that the last fluorine shell has seven (2s2 2p5) electrons. The valence electrons for fluorine (F) are therefore seven.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
Fluorine compound formation by valence electrons
Through its valence electrons, fluorine is involved in the formation bonds. This valence electron is involved in the formation bonds with other elements’ atoms. Fluorine atoms create bonds by sharing electrons and hydrogen atoms.
The hydrogen electron configuration shows that hydrogen only has one electron. By sharing electrons, one hydrogen (H) atom makes hydrogen fluoride (HF) compounds. The fluorine atom then completes its octave, and gains the electron configuration of neon.
Hydrogen, on the other hand acquires the electron structure of helium. To form hydrogen fluoride (HF) compound by covalent bonding, one fluorine and one hydrogen atom share electrons.
What number of valence electrons does the fluorine ion (F –), have?
The electron configuration has shown that the final shell of the fluorine (F) atom contains seven electrons. It is evident that the final shell (orbit) of a fluorine atom contains seven electrons after arranging them. The valence electrons for fluorine (F) are seven in this instance. This is what we know.
During bond formation, elements with 5, 6, or 7 electrons receive electrons from the shell that contains them. Anions are elements that receive electrons to form bonds. Fluorine (F) is an example of an anion element.
The last shell receives electrons during the formation of fluorine (F) bonds and transforms them into fluorine. Fluorine ion (F–), electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration for fluorine (F) ions shows two shells (orbit), and eight electrons in the final shell.
The electron configuration indicates that the fluorine is now in the electron configuration. In this instance, the fluorine ions’ valency is -1. The valence electrons for fluorine (F–) have eight electrons in the shell that contains the fluorine.
What is the fluorine (F) valency?
Valency (or valence) is the ability of an element’s atom to join another atom in the formation of a molecule. The valency is the number of unpaired electrons found in an element’s last orbital.
Fluorine’s electron configuration in an excited state is F*(9) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1. The electron configuration of fluorine indicates that there is an unpaired electron within the last orbital of fluorine (2pz1).
Fluorine’s valency (F) is therefore 1.
- Fluorine, which has an atomic number of 9, is the lightest hydrogen. Fluorine has a standard atomic weight of 18.9984. This is based upon fluorine-19, which is its only natural isotope.
- Fluorine is one of the most reactive and electronegative chemical elements. It doesn’t react vigorously with neon, oxygen, helium and argon.
- George Gore was able to isolate fluorine by using an electrolytic method in 1869. However, the experiment failed when fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen gas. Henri Moisson received the 1906 Nobel Memorial Prize in Chemistry in Chemistry for isolating fluorine in1886.
- F-19 is the only stable fluorine isotope. Fluorine-19, which is sensitive to magnetic fields is used in magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 radioisotopes fluorine were synthesized. They range in mass from 14 to 31.
- Fluorine is the 13th most common element within the Earth’s crust. Fluorine is so reactive it cannot be found in its pure form, but is only found in compounds.
- Fluorine, although it is quite common on Earth, is very rare in the universe. It is believed to be present at concentrations around 400 parts per billion.
- Fluorine is very difficult to store because it is so reactive. For example, hydrofluoric acid (HF) is so corrosive that it can dissolve glass. However, HF is safer than pure fluorine and is easier to transport and manage.
- Fluorine can be used in many ways. It is found as fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water, in Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), drugs including the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil, and etchant hydrofluoric acid. It is used as a refrigerant (chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs), as a propellant, and to enrich uranium with UF 6 gas. Fluorine is a non-essential element in animal or human nutrition.
- At room temperature and pressure, the pure non-metallic element of fluorine is a gas. Fluorine is a yellow-colored diatomic element that turns from a very pale yellow diatomic material (F2) to a bright yellow liquid at -188° Celsius (-307 Fahrenheit).
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