How many valence electrons does Sodium have?

What is the valency of sodium(Na) Valence electrons

Sodium (Na) is eleventh in the periodic table. Sodium (Na) is an alkali metallic and its symbol can be found here. The formation of bonds by valence electrons is a function of sodium atoms.

Many sodium salts are water-soluble. Over time, sodium ions were leached from water from the minerals. Thus, sodium and chlor are the most commonly dissolved elements in the oceans. Sodium is a soft, silvery-white metallic. Sodium, which makes up 2.8 per cent of Earth’s crust, is the most commonly found alkali metal. It is found in many compounds in nature, including the common salt–sodium chlorineide (NaCl), which forms the mineral halite. This makes up about 80 percent of the dissolved components of seawater.

Sodium element


While sodium is the sixth most common element on the planet, making up 2.6% of the earth’s crust, it’s a reactive element that is rarely found in nature. Sir Humphry Davy was the first to isolate pure sodium by electrolysis of NaOH (caustic soda). Because sodium can ignite when it comes in contact with water, it should be kept dry. The production of titan, sodamide and sodium cyanide uses sodium. As a coolant in nuclear reactors, liquid sodium has been used. Streetlights use sodium vapor to produce a bright yellow light.


Sodium is used in nuclear reactors as a heat exchanger and in the chemical industry as a reagent. However, sodium salts are more versatile than the metal. A useful sodium salt is sodium carbonate, also known as washing soda. It can be used to soften water. Common salt is sodium chloride, which is the most common sodium compound. It is used in food, and to melt ice on roads during winter. It can also be used in the chemical industry as a feedstock.

Position of Sodium in the periodic table

Position of Sodium in the periodic table

Natural abundance

The sixth most abundant element on Earth is sodium, which makes up 2.6% Earth’s crust. The most commonly found compound is sodium chloride. This salt is very water-soluble and has leaked into the oceans throughout the life of the planet. However, many salt beds or “lakes” can be found in areas where old seas have evaporated. It can also be found in many minerals, including sodalite, zeolite, and cryolite. It is not found in nature because sodium is so reactive. Electrolysis of dry molten sodium chlorineide is used to make sodium metal.

atomic number 11
atomic weight 22.9898
boiling point 882.9 °C (1,621 °F)
melting point 97.81 °C (208 °F)
specific gravity 0.971 (20 °C)
oxidation states +1, −1 (rare)
electron configuration 2-8-1 or 1s22s22p63s1

Biological role

All living things require sodium, something humans have known since prehistoric times. We have about 100 grams of sodium in our bodies, but we lose it constantly in different ways. All we need is sodium from food. High blood pressure can be caused by excess sodium. The human body needs sodium for many functions. A person should only consume 3 grams of salt per day. It helps cells transmit nerve signals and regulate water level in tissues.

What are the valence electrons for sodium (Na)?

Group-1 element sodium is sodium. The valence electron refers to the number of electrons remaining in the shell’s last orbit. The valence electrons are the number of electrons remaining in the shell after the electron configuration is complete. The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons. They also participate in the formation bonds.

The electron configuration for sodium (Na) indicates that the last shell (orbit) of sodium contains a total electron. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for sodium(Na). You can read it if necessary.

What are the valence electrons for sodium (Na)

What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does the sodium (Na) atom contain?

The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. The Atomic Number of Na (Na) , is 11. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The number of protons found in sodium is 11 The nucleus is protected by a circular orbit (or shell) that contains electrons equal to protons. This means that the sodium atom contains a total eleven electrons.

The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).

We know that the atomic numbers of sodium and atomic mass numbers are 11 and 23 respectively (22.989769). Neutron (n) = 23 – 11 = 12. The number of neutrons found in sodium(Na), therefore, is 12.

Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).

How can you find the number of valence neutrons in a sodium (Na) atom?

These are the steps to determine the valence electron. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of any element. It is easy to determine the valence of any element by knowing the electron configuration. This site has an article that explains the electron arrangement. You can find it here. This article focuses on electron configuration.

However, it is possible to identify valence electrons by placing electrons according the Bohr principle. We will now learn how to identify the valence electrons for sodium (Na).

Calculating the number of electrons in sodium (Na)

First, we must know the number of electrons present in the sodium (Na) atom. You need to know how many protons are in sodium to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons in sodium, you must also know its atomic number.

A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the atomic numbers of the sodium (Na) elements. The number of protons or electrons that are equal to those located outside the nucleus is called the atomic number.

This means that we can now say that the number of electrons in the sodium (Na) atom is equal to its atomic number. The atomic number for sodium (Na) is 11 as seen in the periodic table. The sodium (Na) atom contains eleven electrons.

The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.

You will need to conduct electron configurations of sodium (Na)

Important step 2 This step involves the arrangement of the electrons in sodium (Na). We know that the total number of electrons in sodium atoms is eleven. The electron configuration for sodium(Na), shows that there are two electrons within the K shell, eight inside the L shell and one in orbit.

The first shell of sodium contains two electrons, while the second shell contains eight electrons. The third shell(orbit), however, has one electron. Through the sub-orbit, sodium(Na), has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.

Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell

The third step is to determine the orbit of the valence shell. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. A valence electron is the sum of all electrons found in a valenceshell. The electron configuration for sodium shows that the final shell has an electron (3s1). The valence electrons for sodium (Na) are therefore one.

  1.  The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
  2. The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
  3. The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
  4. The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.

Compound form of Sodium (Na).

Through its valence electron, sodium participates in the formation bonds. The valence electron of sodium is known to be one. This valence element is involved in the formation bonds with other elements.

The electron configuration for chlorine indicates that there are seven valence electrons in chlorine. The valence electron of the sodium atom is given to the chlorine electron by the chlorine atom.

This means that chlorine can acquire the electron structure of argon, and the sodium atom can acquire the electron configurations of neon. Through electron exchange, chlorine and sodium atoms form sodium-chloride (NaCl), bonds. Ionic bonding is sodium chloride (NaCl).

What number of valence electrons does sodium (Na +), have?

The electron configuration is completed when the shell containing the sodium atom’s last electron has been formed. The valency for sodium in this instance is 1. This is what we know. During bond formation, elements with 1, 2, or three electrons in their last shells donate those electrons to the next shell.

Cations are elements that create bonds through the donation of electrons. This means that sodium is a cation-element. Sodium gives away the electron from the shell that formed the bonds, and then turns into sodium ions.

How many valence electrons does sodium ion(Na+) have

The electron configuration for sodium ion (Na+) is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration for sodium-ion shows that sodiumions only have two shells, while the last shell contains eight electrons.

The electron configuration indicates that the sodium atom has the electron arrangement of neon. In this instance, the valency for the sodium-ion would be +1. The valence electrons for sodium ion (Na+), are eight, since the shell that contains the sodium-ion’s last shell has eight electrons.

What is the sodium (Na) valency?

Valency (or valence) is the ability of an element’s atom to join another atom in the formation of a molecule. The valency is the number of unpaired electrons found in an element’s last orbit.

The electron configuration of sodium (Na) indicates that there is an unpaired electron within the last orbit of sodium.

What is the valency of sodium(Na)

The valency of sodium is therefore 1.


  • To make a bright yellow color, fireworks use sodium. Sometimes, the color can overwhelm other colors in a firework.
  • Sodium, which makes up 2.6% of the Earth’s surface, is the sixth most abundant element.
  • Many minerals contain sodium, including soda niter and zeolite.
  • The dominant yellow color of un is due to the sodium spectrum’s D lines.
  • Although sodium is not naturally found in nature, there are many sodium compounds. Salt or sodium chloride is the most common compound.
  • Sodium is the most common alkali metal.
  • Sodium can float on water. This causes it to decompose and give rise to hydrogen and the hydroxide. It can spontaneously ignite on water. At temperatures below 115°C, it does not normally ignite in the air.
  • China, the United States and India are the top three nations that produce sodium. Electrolysis of sodium chloride results in the mass production of sodium metal.
  • In a flame test , sodium burns with a bright yellow colour.

Sodium Compounds

It is easy for sodium to form compounds with almost any anion. Most sodium compounds dissolve in water. Here are some common sodium compounds and their properties.

Sodium Acetate
Sodium acetate is also known as ‘acetic acid’. It is highly soluble within water. It can be found in hand warmers as a source for sodium ions and a seasoning agent in flavour food.
Sodium Sulfide
Sodium sulfide can be described as a colorless solid. It is produced industrially by a carbothermic reaction. This solid also oxidizes when heated. This compound can also be used to dissolve the lignin in wood fibres during paper-making, as well as in the production of rubber chemicals and bleaching agents.
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate, a white powder with a crystal structure, is a solid at room temperatures. It is commonly known as baking soda and has many uses as an anti-antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid and relieves heartburns, among other unpleasant sensations. A sodium bicarbonate’s neutralizing alkaline properties allow it to react with acids. This makes it an effective baking ingredient as well as a dry chemical fire extinguisher.
Sodium Benzoate
This compound is white and odorless. It’s made by combining sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. If placed in water, sodium benzoate will “dissemble” into sodium and benzoic acids ions. This compound is commonly found in food preservatives.
Sodium Bromide
Sodium bromide, a white solid, is easily soluble in water. It has many uses. It can be used as a catalyst and reagent, disinfectant, as well as a source for bromide ions. This compound is also formed by the reaction of sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide. It is not found in nature.
Sodium Citrate
This compound is a white, crystallized powder. It acts as an alkalinizing agent.
Sodium Chloride
Sodium chloride, a white, crystal-like solid, is easily soluble in water. NaCl is well-known for its role in the kitchen, where it acts as table salt. However, sodium chloride can also be made by refining seawater and used to make other chemical compounds (e.g. sodium bicarbonate). Find out some fascinating facts about salt.
Sodium Fluoride
This compound is made by neutralizing hydrofluoric acids with bases (for instance, sodium hydroxide). It is a white/green crystalline liquid that dissolves in water. This compound is also used as a wood preservative and a chemical agent, insecticide, as well as a source for fluoride ions.
Sodium Hydroxide
Common inorganic bases are also known as ‘caustic soda’. This white, crystal-like solid is made by electrolytic chloralkali and can be used for a variety purposes. It can be used as a preservative to preserve foods and as a component in various medicinal products (e.x. Aspirin can also be found in soaps/detergents.
Sodium Hypochlorite
The clear solution sodium hypochlorite has a yellowish hue. It is formed by the reaction of sodium hydroxide and chlorine. When added to wastewater, this common bleaching agent reduces odors.
Sodium Nitrate
Many food preservatives contain sodium nitrate (or sodium nitrite). They preserve certain meats, cheeses, and other foods.
Sodium Iodide
Sodium iodide, which is a white powder with no odor, can be found in the following: It is made by reacting sodium carbonate with hydroiodic acid. In organic syntheses, sodium iodide is often used as a reagent. It is also used to prevent iodine deficiencies because it is a source.
Sodium Phosphates
One group of chemicals is sodium phosphates. These chemicals are composed of sodium, oxygen atoms, and phosphorous. Monosodium Phosphate is made by neutralizing phosphoric acids and used as an emulsifier. It is produced in a similar way to monosodiumphosphate. Disodiumphosphate can be used to soften water. Trisodium-phosphate is created when sodium hydroxide neutralizes the phosphoric acid. It’s used in chemical degreasing agents.
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium carbonate is also known as “soda-ash” and is a white, crystal solid that dissolves in water. This alkaline salt, which is made from salt and limestone is used among other things as a food additive or cleaning agent. It can also be sold as washing soda , which is more expensive than baking soda .
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium sulfate can be described as a white, crystalline liquid. It is used primarily in the manufacturing sector. It is made from sodium chloride and sulfuric acids. It can also be used to make paper and glass, as well as other chemicals.


  1. Martin R. Feldman, J. Chem. Educ., 1980.
  2. Gatti, M.; Tokatly, I.; Rubio, A. (2010). “Sodium: A Charge-Transfer Insulator at High Pressures”.
  3. John M. Thomas, Peter P. Edwards, Vladimir L. Kuznetsov, Sir Humphry Davy: Boundless Chemist, Physicist, Poet and Man of Action., ChemPhysChem., 2008.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
Alexander Stephenson

Candidate of Chemical Sciences, editor-in-chief of Lecturer at several international online schools, member of the jury of chemistry competitions and author of scientific articles.

Rate author

Leave a Reply