Helium is the second element on the periodic table, and the first element of Group-18. Helium is represented by the symbol “He”. Helium is not involved in chemical reactions or bond formation. Due to the high nuclear binding energy of helium-4 (per nucleon) in comparison to the three next elements after helium, its abundance is similar to that in the Sun and Jupiter. It is also a result of nuclear Fusion and Radioactive Decay.
Helium cannot be solidified with sufficient cooling. To convert it to its solid form, you must apply 25 atmospheres pressure at 1 K (-272°C or -458°F). The majority of the universe’s helium is helium-4. This was formed during the Big Bang. The nuclear fusion of hydrogen in star creates large amounts of new Helium.
- Helium Health Effects
- Biological role
- Position of helium in the periodic table
- Helium Gas Properties
- Natural abundance
- What are the valence electrons in helium (He)?
- What number of electrons, protons and neutrons does a Helium (He) atom contain?
- How can you find the number of valence neutrons in a He helium atom?
- Calculating the number of electrons in Helium (He)
- You will need to conduct electron configuration of Helium (He)
- Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
- Why is helium considered an inert gas?
- Why helium should be placed in group 18 of the periodic table
- What is the valency for helium (He)?
- 10 Helium Facts
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and superconducting magnets used in MRI scanners, NMR spectrometers, use Helium as a cooling medium. It can also be used to cool satellite instruments and to cool liquid oxygen and hydrogen used in the Apollo spacecraft’s engines.
Helium, due to its low density, is frequently used for filling decorative balloons, weather balloons, and airships. Hydrogen was once used for filling balloons, but it is now dangerously reactive. Helium is very inert and non-reactive. It is used for providing an inert protective environment for the production of fibre optics, semiconductors, and arc welding. It is also used for detecting leaks in car air-conditioning systems.
Helium can be used to inflate car bags after impact because it diffuses quickly. Deep-sea divers working in pressurised conditions and other workers under pressure are provided with an artificial atmosphere of 80% Helium and 20% Oxygen. To scan barcodes at supermarket checkouts, helium-neon lasers can be used. A helium-ion microscope, which provides better image resolution than a scanning electron microscope, is another new use of helium.
Helium Health Effects
Exposure effects: The substance can be inhaled into the body. Inhalation: Very high voice. Dizziness. Dullness. Headache. Suffocation. Frostbite: Skin contact with liquid can cause frostbite. Eyes: Contact with liquid can cause frostbite. Inhalation risk: This gas can cause suffocation if there is no containment. Before entering an area, check the oxygen content.
At standard conditions, neutral helium is non-toxic and plays no biological function. It can be found in trace quantities in human blood.
|boiling point||−268.9 °C (−452 °F)|
|density (1 atm, 0 °C)||0.1785 gram/litre|
Helium is the second most common element in the universe. It was discovered on the sun, before it was discovered on earth. Pierre-Jules-Cesar Janssen was a French astronomer who noticed a yellow line on the sun’s spectrum during a total Solar Eclipse in 1868. Sir Norman Lockyer, an English Astronomer, noticed that the line with a wavelength 587.49 nanometers could not have been produced by any known element at the time. This mysterious yellow emission was thought to be caused by a new element in the sun. Lockyer gave the name helium to this unknown element.
In 1895, the hunt for helium on Earth ended. Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish scientist, performed an experiment using clevite, a mineral that contained uranium. The clevite was exposed to acid minerals and the gaseous products were collected. Lockyer and Sir William Crookes then received a sample of the gases. They were able identify the helium in it. Nils Langlet, a Swedish chemist, and Per Theodor Cleve were able to independently find helium within clevite around the same time that Ramsay.
Helium is not known to have any biological function. It is not toxic.
Position of helium in the periodic table
Helium Gas Properties
The colorless, orderless, monoatomic noble gases, Helium (atomic numbers = 2), and the closed-shell electronic configuration have very low boiling point and melting points. Electric polarization increases with increasing atomic numbers (He to Xe) due to weak Van der Waals and London forces between the molecules of noble gases. This is because the trend boiling point, melting points, enthalpy for vaporization and solubility of water increase with increasing atomic numbers.
Helium is second in abundance after hydrogen. It can be found in all stars. It was formed from the alpha-particle decay in radioactive elements on Earth. The atmosphere contains approximately 5 parts per million of helium. This dynamic balance is caused by the low-density Helium constantly escaping into outer space.
It is not economically feasible to extract helium out of the air. Natural gas is the main source of helium, and can contain as much as 7%.
What are the valence electrons in helium (He)?
The valence electron is the number of electrons found in the final shell of helium. The total number of electrons found in an element’s last shell after electron configuration is called. The element’s last shell contains the valence electrons. The inner orbital may contain the valence electrons from the transition elements.
The electron configuration of Helium shows that there are two electrons in its last shell (orbit). The valence electrons in helium therefore have two. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for helium(He). You can read it if interested.
What number of electrons, protons and neutrons does a Helium (He) atom contain?
The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. The atomic number for helium (He) is 2. The number of protons is called the atomic number. This means that there are two protons in helium. The nucleus contains an electron shell that is equal to the protons. This means that a helium atom can have a total number of two electrons.
The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).
We know that the atomic numbers of helium are 2 and 4. Neutron (n) = 4 – 2 = 2. The number of neutrons found in Helium (He) is therefore 2.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How can you find the number of valence neutrons in a He helium atom?
The valence electron is the sum of all electrons in an atom’s last shell (orbit). The valence electrons can be determined by knowing the number of electrons within the element’s last shell.
First, you need to know about the electron configuration of the element in order to determine the number of electrons present in the shell. This article provides some basic information about electron configuration. Click here for more information about electron configuration. To diagnose helium-valence electrons, there are a few steps.
Calculating the number of electrons in Helium (He)
First, you must know the number of electrons within the helium atom. This is done by knowing the atomic number for helium elements. The number of protons contained in an element’s atomic number is its atomic number.
That atom also contains electrons that are equal to protons. The periodic table shows that helium has an atomic number of two. This means that there are two electrons in the helium-atom.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
You will need to conduct electron configuration of Helium (He)
Important step 2 is. This step involves the arrangement of electrons in helium. Two electrons are required for helium atoms to exist. These two electrons are able to enter the first shell. The electron configuration for helium through sub-orbital radiation is 1s2.
Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
The third step is to determine the number of electrons remaining in the shell. We already know that there are two electrons in the last orbit. The electron configuration shows that the first helium shell is the orbit and there are two electrons total. The valence electrons in helium therefore have two.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
Why is helium considered an inert gas?
Inert gases are elements that fall within the Group-18 section of the periodic table. Group-18’s inert gasses are neon(Ne), Helium(He), Argon(Ar), Krypton (Kr), xenon[Xe] and Radon(Rn). The element that makes up group-18 is helium (He), as we know. The electron configuration of Helium shows that the orbit at its end is full of electrons. Because the orbit at the end of helium contains electrons, helium doesn’t want to share or exchange any electrons.
Helium doesn’t form compounds, as it doesn’t share electrons. They are not involved in chemical bonds or chemical reactions. They are known as inert elements. At normal temperatures, the inert elements take the form of gases. Inert gases are used to describe inert elements.
Why helium should be placed in group 18 of the periodic table
The electron configuration for helium indicates that there are two electrons in each orbit of the Helium Atom. The number of electrons in an element’s last orbit is equal to the number number of elements in the element.
The group of Helium is therefore two, but helium can be considered an inert element. All inert elements are located in group number 18 of the periodic table. Helium is therefore placed in group-18, instead of group-2.
What is the valency for helium (He)?
Valency is the ability of an element’s atom to combine with another atom in order to form a compound. Helium is an inert elements.
The valency of Helium is therefore zero.
10 Helium Facts
- The atomic number for helium is 2. This means that each atom has two protons. The element with the highest number of neutrons has 2
- Helium is the second most reactive noble gas. It is the real gas that closely approximates the behavior a ideal gasoline.
- The majority of helium can be extracted from natural gas. Helium is used in party balloons, for chemical storage and reactions, and to cool superconducting magnets for NMR spectrometers.
- Helium has the lowest melting points and boiling points of all the elements. It can only exist as a gas unless it is subject to extreme conditions. To become solid, it must be pressurized. Helium at absolute zero pressure is a liquid at normal pressure.
- Under standard conditions, helium is monoatomic. Helium can be found as a single atom of an element, or in other words, it is monatomic.
- Helium is the second-lightest element. Hydrogen is the lightest element and one with the lowest density. Hydrogen is a diatomic gas, which is composed of two atoms that are bonded together. However, one atom of hydrogen has a higher density.
- Helium is inert, colorless, odorless and tasteless. Helium is one of the least reactive elements. It does not form compounds in normal conditions. It would have to be pressurized or ionized in order to bond to another element.
- The sound of a person’s vocal chords temporarily changes when they inhale helium.
- Helium is the second most abundant element, but it is less common than hydrogen. The element is non-renewable on Earth. While Helium cannot form compounds with other elements and the free atom can escape Earth’s gravity to bleed out through its atmosphere, it is not heavy enough to make any other elements.
- The observation of a yellow spectrum line coming from the sun provided evidence of the existence of helium.
- Auguste Comte, Cours de Philosophie Positive at Project Gutenberg
- Helge Kragh, The Solar Element: A Reconsideration of Helium’s Early History., 2009, Annals of Science, 66:2.