Cobalt is 27th element of the periodic table. Cobalt is group-9’s element. Its symbol is “Co“. Cobalt is considered a transition element. Cobalt’s valence electrons (Co) can be determined differently. The last shell of cobalt elements has only two electrons, but its valence atoms have more than two.
- Cobalt within the Environment
- Place of Cobalt (Co) in the periodic table
- Who discovered Cobalt?
- What are the valence-electrons of cobalt?
- How many protons and electrons does a cobalt-atom have?
- How do you calculate how many valence neutrons are in a cobalt-atom?
- How to determine the total number electrons in cobalt
- Do you need to do electron configurations of cobalt?
- Calculate total electrons by determining the valenceshell
- How can you determine the cobalt’s valency?
- How many valence-electrons does cobalt (Co2+, Co3+), have?
- Interesting Facts About Cobalt:
Many alloys include superalloys that are used in gas turbine engines, corrosion-resistant alloys, high speed steels, cemented carbides, and magents. Cobalt can also be used as a catalyst for the petroleum and chemical industry, and as drying agents for paints or inks. Cobalt blue, which is an essential part of the artist’s palette, is used by craft workers in porcelain and stained glass, tiles, enamel jewellery, and pottery. Cobalt-60 is one of the radioactive isotopes. It is used to treat and irradiate foods, as well as for medical treatment.
Cobalt within the Environment
The Earth’s core contains the majority of its cobalt. Cobalt is found in relatively low amounts in the Earth’s core and in natural water. However, soils can have as low as 0.1ppm or as high as 70ppm. bluegreen algae (cyanobacteria), and other nitrogen fixing organisms require cobalt in the marine environment. Cobalt can’t be found as a pure metal. It is usually found in the form ores. Cobalt is rarely mined by itself and is often produced as a result of copper and nickel mining activities. Cobaltite is a cobaltite-erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite are the main cobalt ores. Australia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (or mainland China), Zambia, Russia, and Zambia are the world’s largest producers of cobalt. It can also be found in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Finland.
The world produces 17.000 tonnes annually.
Place of Cobalt (Co) in the periodic table
Who discovered Cobalt?
The official “discovery” or chemical isolation of cobalt is credited to Georg Brandt, a Swedish scientist. Brandt was a chemist and researcher who prided himself in his ability to recognize chemistry’s “flaws”. He wanted to create a solid foundation of scientific knowledge that relies only on principles and axioms.
Brandt’s encounter with cobalt was a result of his pursuit of scientific facts. He realized that the blue pigment used in glassmaking was derived from an unknown element, and he began to study it. Brandt’s 1735 novel Dissertatio de Semi-Metallis cited the discovery of this “semi-metal” which he had called cobalt. Brandt’s claim was initially met skeptically, as no new metals have ever been discovered.
Cobalt is currently considered a transitional metal. However, Brandt’s discoveries prompted an explosion of elemental research and the expansion of the earlier-established periodic tables. Brandt is also the first person to discover a new metal in history.
|boiling point||2,870 °C (5,198 °F)|
|melting point||1,495 °C (2,723 °F)|
|density||8.9 gram/cm3 at 20 °C (68 °F)|
|oxidation states||+2, +3|
Cobalt-60 is an artificial isotope that is important for gamma radiation sources. It is widely used as a tracer, radiotherapeutic agent, and as an artificial isotope.
Cobalt exposure (metal fumes or dust) should not exceed 0.05 mg/m (3 an 8-hour-weighted, average 40-hour work week).
What are the valence-electrons of cobalt?
The number of electrons found in the last orbit is the valence element. The d-block element is the cobalt, which is the first element in group 9. The elements found in groups 3-12 can be called transition elements. However, transition elements have valence electrons that remain in the inner shell (orbit). This is because electron configurations of transition elements show that the last electrons enter d-orbital.
The electron configuration for cobalt indicates that the final shell of cobalt has a total number of two electrons. However, the electron configuration of cobalt from the Aufbau method shows its last electrons (3d 7), have entered the orbital. The element’s properties are determined by the valence elements. They also play a role in the formation of bonds. The formation of bonds can be facilitated by electrons from the d orbital. The d-orbital electrons are used to calculate the valence of the transition elements.
How many protons and electrons does a cobalt-atom have?
The nucleus is located at the center of an atom. In the nucleus are protons and neutrons. The atomic number 27 for cobalt is. The number of protons in a substance is known as the atomic number. The number of protons in cobalt consists of 27. In the nucleus’s circular shell, electrons that are equal to protons can be found. The cobalt-atom has 27 electrons.
The difference between the number and atoms of an element’s atomic mass and the number is the number of neutrons. The neutron number n = atomic Mass Number (A)-atomic Number (Z)
We know that cobalt’s atomic number 27 is the highest and its atomic mass number about 59 (58.933u) is the lowest. Neutron (n) = 59 – 27 = 32. Thus, there are 32 neutrons in cobalt.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How do you calculate how many valence neutrons are in a cobalt-atom?
Following a few steps, you can determine the valence of electrons. One of them is the electron configuration. Without the electron configuration, it’s impossible to determine valence electrons. Knowing the electron configuration correctly, it is simple to determine the values electrons for all elements.
Bohr’s atomic model cannot identify the valence electrons in the transition element. Because the transition element’s valence electrons are in the inner shell, this is why it cannot be determined. The Aufbau principle can help you determine the valence elements of the transition element. This is how we can determine the valence of cobalt (Co).
How to determine the total number electrons in cobalt
We first need to determine the total number electrons in the cobaltatom. You must know the number protons in cobalt to find out the number of electrons. You will also need to know what the atomic numbers of cobalt elements are in order to determine the number of electrons.
The periodic table can be used to calculate the atomic numbers. It is essential to find the atomic numbers of cobalt element elements from the periodic tables. The number of protons in an atom is called the “atomic number”. Additionally, electrons equal to protons can be found outside of the nucleus.
We can thus conclude that electrons are equal to the cobalt atom’s atomic number. We can see that the atomic numbers of cobalt are 27 from the periodic table. The cobaltatom contains 27 electrons.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
Do you need to do electron configurations of cobalt?
Step 2 is crucial. The cobalt electrons (Co) must be organized in this step. We know that all cobalt-atoms contain 27 electrons. The 1s orbital receives the first two electrons, and the 2s orbital receives the next two. The next six electrons will enter the 2p orbital. Six electrons are allowed in the p orbital. The 2p orbital can have six electrons.
The 8th and 9th electrons then enter the 3s, 3p orbitals. The 3p orbital is full so the two remaining electrons can enter the 4s orbital. We know that the maximum number of electrons in a d orbital is ten. Therefore, seven electrons remain in the d’orbital. Thus, the cobalt-electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7.
Calculate total electrons by determining the valenceshell
The third step involves diagnosing the valenceshell. The valenceshell is the shell that follows the electron configuration. The total number of electrons within a valence-shell is called the valence electrons. However, the inner shell houses the valence elements of transition elements.
To determine the valence element, you must add the total electrons from the d orbital to the electron in atom’s last shell. The last shell contains two (4s2), and the d’orbital has seven electrons (3d7). Accordingly, there are nine valence electrons for cobalt.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
How can you determine the cobalt’s valency?
Valency is the ability for an element’s atom to bond with another atom in the formation of a molecular structure. There are some guidelines for diagnosing valency. The valency is the sum of all electrons that are unpaired in the final orbital of an electron configuration after an electron configuration.
The oxidation state of cobalt is +2 and +3. Cobalt(II),oxide(CoO) has the cobalt (oxidation state) +2. This compound contains a 2.5% valency. The Cobalt(III) oxide(Co2O3) has used the oxidation status of cobalt +3. The bond formation is what determines the oxidation state of cobalt(Co).
How many valence-electrons does cobalt (Co2+, Co3+), have?
During bond formation, the elements that have 1 or 2 electrons in their shells donate those electrons. Cation are elements that donate electrons in order to form bonds. There are two types if cobalt-ion. Co2+ is the cobalt-atom ion. Two electrons are donated by the cobaltatom in the 4s orbital to create a cobalt Ion (Co2+).
Here is the cobalt-ion(Co2+), electron configuration. It’s 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d7. The electron configuration shows that cobaltion ion(Co2+) has three shells, and the last shell has 15 electrons (3s2 3p6 3d7). Cobalt ion(Co2+) has a total fifteen valence electrons. The cobalt Atom donates 2 electrons in 4s orbital, and 1 electron in 3d orbital in order to convert cobalt Ion (Co3+).
The electron configuration of ion(Co3+) (cobalt) is as follows: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6. This electron configuration shows that the cobalt ion (Co3+), is composed of three shells. The last shell has 14 electrons. The valence electrons for the cobalt (Co3+), are therefore fourteen.
Interesting Facts About Cobalt:
- Cobalt comes from the German term Kobald which means goblin or evil spirit. As 4O 6), poisonous arsenic triooxide was produced during the original smelting process. This toxic gas was believed to have been used as a replacement for the stolen silver metal by the goblins.
- Cobalt was discovered as a prehistoric metal.
- Cobalt was the first metal to be discovered by a known person. Georg Brandt (1694-1768), a Swedish chemist, was the first to isolate it. His research revealed that the Cobalt was responsible for the blue color.
- Cobalt cannot be mined in the United States. It can be found mostly in Zambia, Canada and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
- Cobalt is one of three naturally magnetic metals, the other two being iron and nickel.
- Cobalt-60, a radioactive element, is an import source for gamma radiations. It is used as a tracer in radiotherapy and sterilizes medical supplies.
- In the United States, there are no towns or cities named Cobalt. Cobalt, Ontario (300 miles north from Toronto), was named in 1904 after the Cobalt/Silver Rush that occurred in the region. With the growing interest in Cobalt production, once a ghost town, the “Ontario’s Most Historic Town” and “Cobalt Mining District” have attracted new attention.