How many valence electrons does Vanadium have?

What is the valency of vanadium Valence electrons

Vanadium, the element of group 5, is symbol “V”. Vanadium can be considered a transition element. Vanadium is a transition element. Therefore, the valence elements of vanadium have been determined differently. This article explains in detail the valence electrons for vanadium.  It can be alloyed with Steel and Iron to make high-speed Tool Steel , high strength low-alloy steel , and wear-resistant Cast Iron. 


History and uses

Andres Manuel Del Rio, a Spanish chemicalist, discovered vanadium in 1801. Rio sent vanadium ore samples and a letter detailing his methods to the Institute de France, Paris, France for analysis and confirmation. Rio’s letter, which he had called erythronium by Rio, was lost in a shipping accident. The Institute received only his samples. It also contained a note explaining how this new element, which Rio had called erythronium by Rio, looked like chromium. Rio withdrew the claim after he received a Paris letter disputing his discovery. Nils Gabriel Sefstrom (a Swedish chemist) discovered vanadium in 1830 after analyzing samples from a Swedish mine. Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (an English chemist) isolated vanadium in 1867 by mixing vanadium trichloride with hydrogengas (H2).

Nearly 80% is used in ferrovanadium production or as an addition to steel. Ferrovanadium, a strong and resistant to corrosion alloy of iron that contains between 1% and 6 percent vanadium, is called a ferrovanadium. Vanadium-steel and ferrovanadium are used in the manufacture of parts for jet engines, axles, crankshafts, gears, springs, and cutting tools.

Place of Vanadium (V) in the periodic table

Place of Vanadium (V) in the periodic table

Biological role

Vanadium is an essential mineral for some species, such as humans. However, we only need very little. Vanadium is only 0.01 mg per day. This is sufficient to meet our daily needs. Vanadium can be toxic in some compounds.


There are 20 vanadium isotopes, ranging in V-23 to V-43. Vanadium only has one stable isotope, V-51. V-50 is stable, with a half-life that measures 1.4 x 10 17 year. Natural vanadium is mostly a mixture between the two isotopes vanadium-50 (0.24%) and vanadium-5 (99.76%).

Natural abundance

Vanadium can be found in 65 minerals, including vanadinite and carnotite. It can also be found in certain iron ores, phosphate rock and crude oils as organic complexes. Vanadium oxide is reduced with calcium in a pressure vessel to make vanadium metal. Reduce vanadium(III), chloride with magnesium to obtain vanadium of high purity.

Vanadium effects on the environment

Vanadium is found in many species of plants, animals, invertebrates and fishes. Vanadium can be bioaccumulated in mussels and crabs, which can result in concentrations up to 10 5 to ten 6 more than those found in seawater. Vanadium inhibits enzymes in animals. This has many neurological effects. Vanadium can also cause breathing problems, paralyses, and adverse effects on the liver or kidneys.

Laboratory tests on test animals have shown that vanadium can harm the reproductive system in male animals and accumulate in the female placenta.

atomic number23
atomic weight50.942
boiling point3,380 °C (6,116 °F)
melting point1,890 °C (3,434 °F)
specific gravity5.96 at 20 °C (68 °F)
oxidation states+2, +3, +4, +5
electron configuration[Ar]3d34s2

Where can you find vanadium?

Vanadium, the fifth most common transition metal, is also the twenty-eighth most abundant element of all the periodic table elements. Vanadium makes up 0.136 percent of earth’s crustal rock. Vanadium is found in various minerals, including vanadinite and roscoelite, coal, and crude petroleum oil. It can be purchased commercially in many countries, such as Mexico, Venezuela, and Mexico. China, South Africa and Russia. A few mineral watersprings, and some invertebrates or plants, have high levels of vanadium.

What are the valence elements of vanadium(V)?

Vanadium is the first element in group 5. The elements found in groups 3-12 can be called transition elements.

What are the valence electrons of vanadium(V)

The number of electrons remaining in the orbit’s last orbit is the valence electron. However, in the case with transition elements the valences electrons are still in the inner shell (orbit). Because of the configuration of vanadium (V), it is clear that the last electrons are in the d orbital. The properties of an element are determined by the valence elements, and they also play a role in the formation of bonds.

How many protons and electrons does a vanadium molecular atom contain?

The nucleus is located at the center of an atom. In the nucleus are protons and neutrons. The atomic number V is 23. The number of protons in a substance is known as the atomic number. The number of protons found in vanadium is 23. A circular shell located outside of the nucleus houses electrons that are equal to protons. A vanadium atom contains a total of 23 electrons.

The difference between the number and atoms of an element’s atomic mass and the number is the number of neutrons. The neutron number n = atomic Mass Number (A)-atomic Number (Z)

We know that vanadium has an atomic number 23 and that its atomic weight is 51 (50.9415u). Neutron (n) = 51 – 23 = 28. Thus, vanadium has 28 neutrons.

Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).

How can you calculate how many valence electrons are in a vanadium(V), atom?

Following a few steps, you can determine the valence of electrons. One of them is the electron configuration. It is impossible to determine if the electron configuration is missing. It is simple to determine the electron configuration of all elements. Bohr’s atomic model cannot be used to determine the valence of the transition elements. The inner shell is where the valence elements of the transition element are found. However, it is possible to determine the valence element of a transitional element using the Aufbau principle. This is how we can determine the valence of vanadium (V).

Finding the total number electrons in vanadium (V)

We first need to know how many electrons are in the vanadium(V atom). The number of protons within vanadium is required to calculate the number of electrons. You need to know what the vanadium element’s atomic number is to find out the number of electrons. The periodic table can help us determine the atomic numbers. The periodic table provides the information needed to calculate the atomic numbers of vanadium components. The number of protons in an atom is the atomic number. Additionally, electrons equal to protons can be found outside of the nucleus.

We can thus conclude that there are electrons equal or greater than the atomic numbers in vanadium atoms. We can see that vanadium (V) has an atomic number of 23 from the periodic table. The total number of electrons in a vanadium atom is therefore 23.

The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.

Do you need to do the electron configuration of vanadium?

Step 2 is crucial. The electrons of vanadium (V) must be organized in this step. The electron configuration for vanadium shows that there are four shells. One shell contains two electrons; the second has eight electrons. A third shell has 11 electrons. A fourth shell has two electrons. The electron configuration for vanadium through sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2.

Calculate total electrons by determining the valenceshell

The third step involves diagnosing the orbit (valence shell). The valenceshell is the shell that follows the electron configuration. The number of electrons contained in a valenceshell’s total is called the valence electrons. However, the valence elements of transition elements are found in the inner orbit. To determine the valence of the transition element, you must add the total electrons of d-orbital to electrons in the final orbit of an atom. The electron configuration of vanadium reveals that the vanadium’s last shell contains two electrons while the d orbital has three electrons (3d 3). Vanadium’s valence electrons are five.

  1.  The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
  2. The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
  3. The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
  4. The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.

How many valence elements does vanadium-ion (V2+, and V3+), have?

The elements with 1 or 2 electrons in their shells donate electrons to bond formation. Cation are elements that give electrons to make bonds. Vanadium atom gives two electrons in a 4s orbital to transform a vanadium (V2+). Vanadium can be described as a cation element. There are two types: V2+ and V3+.

V – 2e – V 2+

Here, the electron configuration for vanadium ion (V2+) can be seen as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3. The electron configuration for vanadium-ion(V ) shows vanadium’s three shells. The last shell contains eleven electrons. This is because the eleven valence electrons in vanadium (V 2+), can be used.

V – 3e – V 3+

On the contrary, the electron configuration of vanadiumions (V3+), is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2. This electron configuration for vanadium isotope (V 3+), reveals that vanadium’s ion has three shells while the last shell has ten electrons. In this instance, the valence elements of the vanadiumion (V3+) are ten.

What is vanadium valency?

Valency is the ability for an element’s atom to bond with another atom during the formation a molecule. There are rules to help you determine if you have valency. The valency is the sum of all electrons that are unpaired in the final orbital of an electron configuration after an electron configuration.

What is the valency of vanadium

The electron configuration of the element is also a factor in determining valency. In the ground state, vanadium’s electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3dxy1 3dyz1 3dzx1 4s2 This electron configuration shows the three unpaired electrons in vanadium. Therefore, vanadium’s valency is 3. Vanadium(V), which has oxidation states +2, +3, +4 (+5). The valency for vanadium is therefore 2,3,4,5. The bond formation is what determines the oxidation and valency states. The most common use of vanadium is for its valency 4 or 5.


Because of their resistance to corrosion, vanadium oxides are a major industrial component. They are used in ferrovanadium alloys, which are steel alloys. Vanadium oxide metals react with heat above 660°C (1220°F) and can easily oxidize. Each oxidation state is associated with a particular color.


Vanadium monoxide (VO) is an electronic neutral reagent. It is a grey metallic solid that can be used as an electrical conductor. The melting point at 1789°C (3252.2°F) is high. The solution has a purple color and oxidizes to vanadium (III) when it is exposed to air. This causes the color to change to green. Blue vanadium ions can also be produced by adding nitric to vanadium(II), solution, VO 2+.


Vanadium trioxide (V 2O 3) is a black, crystalline, insoluble solid. This basic oxide is naturally found in the karelianite mineral. It also acts as a reducing agent. Vanadium trioxide oxides are formed when they are exposed to oxygen. They form the blue-colored vanadium (IV) state.


Vanadium dioxide (VO 2) is an amphoteric substance that can act as both a base or acid. Vanadium dioxide, also known as VO2+, is a blue-colored vanadyl compound that dissociates when it is placed in an acid solution. Vanadium dioxide can produce yellowish-brown hypovanadate ions in a base solution [V4O9] 2.


Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is vanadium’s most important compound due to its thermal stability. It is not easily soluble in water and has a density 3.35 g/cm3. This powder is yellow-red in color and can be used to make superconductive magnets with galium. This compound is toxic when inhaled, ingested, or contact with skin, despite its wide-ranging uses. Under acidic conditions, ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3), a compound in which vanadium is found in the +5 state of oxidation, can be reduced. Vanadium (V) can be reduced to vanadium by adding zinc and moderately concentrated acids.

Vanadium-containing minerals like carnotite are used to extract vanadium. The carnotite ore is first subject to a leaching process. After that, it is treated with hot sulfuric acids and an oxidizing agent for 24hrs. Vanadium is converted into a soluble sodium by the leaching process. Notably, vanadium can also be found in carnotite. Therefore, uranium salts can also be extracted. The remaining “ore”, after the salts have been filtered, is then further processed. This allows vanadium to be separated from uranium and allow it to undergo a precipitation reaction using ammonium sulfurate. The precipitation reaction results in ammonium metavanadate. Finally, ammonium metavanadate can be filtered and calcined into vanadium pentoxide.


Alexander Stephenson

Candidate of Chemical Sciences, editor-in-chief of Lecturer at several international online schools, member of the jury of chemistry competitions and author of scientific articles.

Rate author

Leave a Reply