Scandium is the 21st element on the periodic table. Scandium is the element in group 3 and its symbol, ‘Sc’. Scandium is involved in the formation bonds by its valence electrons.Scandium compounds have properties that are intermediate between aluminium, ytrium. There is a diagonal relation between the behavior magnesium, and scandium. This is similar to what exists between beryllium and aluminium.
The predominant oxidation status in chemical compounds of elements from group 3 is +3. The metal dissolves slowly in diluted acidss–except in hydrofluoric acid, in which a protective trifluoride coating prevents further reactions. Scandium is paramagnet at 0 K (-273 degC) or -460 degrees F to its melt point (1.541 degC or 2,806 degrees F). At pressures greater than 186 kilobars, it becomes superconducting.
- Position of Scandium in the periodic table
- Scandium has health benefits
- Natural abundance
- Scandium effects on the environment
- Biological role
- What are the valence elements of Scandium (Sc)?
- What number of protons, electrons, and neutrons does a scanningdium atom contain?
- How can you find the number of valence atoms in a scandium (Sc) atom?
- Calculating the total number electrons in scandium (Sc)
- You will need to conduct electron configuration of scandium (Sc)
- Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
- What number of valence electrons does the scandium ion (Sc3+) have?
- What is the valency for scandium?
Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, the inventor of the periodic tables, predicted the existence of scandium and its properties in 1869 according to the New World Encyclopedia. Lars Fredrick Nilson was a Swedish chemist who discovered the element by studying the spectra for the minerals gadolinite and euxenite. According to Peter van der Krogt a Dutch historian, the element was named after the Latin term for Scandinavia, “Scandia”, because scandium was found only in the Scandinavian Peninsula at the time. Per Teodor Cleve (a Swedish chemist) made the connection that the element found by Nilson was the exact same as Mendeleev’s proposed element.
Nilson and his colleagues processed 10 kgs of euxenite in their first attempt at isolating scandium. They were able produce approximately two grams of scandium dioxide. According to the New World Encyclopedia metallic scandium was not produced for the first times until 1937 by Werner Fischer and Karl Brunger, German chemists. In 1960, 99.
Research is the main purpose of Scandium. However, it is a great material because of its low density and high melting point. A aluminium-scandium alloy has been used in Russian MIG fighter aircrafts, high-end bicycle frames, and baseball bats.
Radioactive isotopes scandium-46 are used in oil refining to track the movement of different fractions. It can also be used underground to detect leaks. To produce a light source that is similar to sunlight, mercury vapour lamps are infused with scandium iodide. These lamps allow television cameras to accurately reproduce colour indoors and at night.
Position of Scandium in the periodic table
Silvery metal that reacts well with water, tarnishes in the air and burns easily.
Scandium has health benefits
There is no biological function for Scandium. The average person gets less than 0.1 micrograms of Scandium daily. This is because only trace amounts make it into the food chain. Although it is non-toxic, some of its compounds may be cancer-causing.
Because damps and gases can be inhaled together with air, Scandium is most dangerous in the workplace. Long-term exposure can lead to lung embolisms. When it builds up in the body, Scandium can pose a danger to the liver.
It is widely distributed and can be found in small quantities in more than 800 mineral species. It is the main ingredient of the rare and collectable mineral, thortveitite. This mineral can be found in Scandinavia.
Scandium can either be extracted from uranium tailings (sandy material) or recovered from thortveitite. You can make metallic scandium by reacting the fluoride with calcium. You can also electrolyse molten potassium, scandium chlorides and lithium with electrodes of tungstenwire and molten zinc.
|boiling point||2,836 °C (5,137 °F)|
|melting point||1,541 °C (2,806 °F)|
|specific gravity||2.989 (24 °C, or 75 °F)|
Scandium effects on the environment
Many places are where Scandium can be found in the environment, most notably by petrol-producing companies. Scandium can also be introduced to the environment by household equipment being thrown away. The soil and water soils will slowly accumulate the contaminants, which will eventually cause an increase in its concentration in people, animals, and soil particles.
Scanddium can cause cell membrane damage in water animals, which can have negative effects on reproduction and the function of the nervous system.
It has no biological function. It is suspected to be a carcinogen.
What are the valence elements of Scandium (Sc)?
The 1st element in group-3 is scandium. The elements of groups 3-12 are known as transition elements. The total number of electrons in a last orbit is called the valence electron. The valence electrons of transition elements are kept in the outer shell (orbit) however. The electron configuration in scandium(Sc), indicates that the last electrons have entered the d-orbital. The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons, which also participate in the formation bonds.
What number of protons, electrons, and neutrons does a scanningdium atom contain?
The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. Scandium (Sc) has an atomic number 21. The number of protons is called the atomic number. This is scandium 21’s number of protons. The nucleus contains an electron shell that is equal to the protons. A scandium atom can have a total number of twenty-one electrons.
The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).
We know that scandium’s atomic number 21 is the highest and that its atomic mass number is 45.9591u. Neutron (n) = 45 – 21 = 24. The number of neutrons found in scandium (Sc) is therefore 24.
Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).
How can you find the number of valence atoms in a scandium (Sc) atom?
These are the steps to determine the valence electrons. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of an electron. It is easy to determine the value electrons for all elements by knowing the electron configuration. Bohr’s Atomic Model cannot determine the valence electrons for the transition element. The inner shell contains the valence electrons for the transition elements. The Aufbau principle allows you to determine the valence electron for a transition element. We will now learn how to determine scandium’s valence electron (Sc).
Calculating the total number electrons in scandium (Sc)
First, we must know the number of electrons within the scandium atom. You need to know how many protons are in scandium to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons, you must know the atomic number for the scandium element. A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the atomic numbers of the scandium elements. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons.
This means that we can now say that the number of electrons in the scandium-atom is equal to its atomic number. The periodic table shows that scandium’s atomic number (Sc) is 21. This means that the total electron count for scandium atoms is 21.
The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.
You will need to conduct electron configuration of scandium (Sc)
Important step 2 is. This step is crucial. The electron configuration of scandium shows the following: the first shell contains two electrons, while the second shell has eight electrons. The third shell has nine electrons, and the fourth shell has two. The electron configuration for scandium through the sub orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2.
Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell
The third step is to determine the orbit of the valence shell. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. The total number of electrons found in a valenceshell is called valence electrons. The inner orbit contains the valence electrons for transition elements. The valence electrons for the transition element must be calculated by adding the total electrons from the d-orbital and the electrons in last orbit of the Atom. The electron configuration for scandium shows that the last scandium shell has two (4s2) electrons, while the d-orbital contains a total electron (3d1). The valence electrons for scandium (Sc) are therefore three.
- The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
- The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
- The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
- The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.
What number of valence electrons does the scandium ion (Sc3+) have?
During bond formation, elements with 1, 2, or three electrons in their last shell donate electrons from the previous shell. Cations are elements that donate electrons to form bonds. Scandium donates an electron from the last shell in order to form bonds, and then becomes a scandium (Sc3+). This is why scandium is called a cation element.
Scandium ion , has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s1 4px1 . This electron configuration shows that scandium ion (Sc3+) has three shells, while the last shell contains eight electrons. This electron configuration indicates that the scandium (Sc3+), has obtained the electron structure of argon. The valency for the scandium ion in this instance is +3. The valence electrons for scandium (Sc3+) are eight, since the last shell in a scandium-ion has eight electrons.
What is the valency for scandium?
Valency (or valence) is the ability of an atom of an element in a molecule to join another atom during formation. There are a few rules that can be used to determine valency. The valency of an element is the number of electrons found in an unpaired state within the shell following the electron configuration. The electron configuration of an element in its excited state determines the valency. Sc*(21), the electron configuration in scandium’s excited state, is Sc*(21). It equals 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s1 4px1 .This shows that scandium has three unpaired electrons.
The valency of scandium therefore is 3.
- Scandium was named for Scandinavia. Lars Nilson, a chemist, was trying to isolate the element of ytterbium form the minerals gadolinite and euxenite when he discovered scandium. These minerals were found primarily in Scandinavia.
- Scandium is abundant in the Earth’s crust at 22 mg/kg (or portions per million).
- Scandium, the transition metal with the lowest number of atomic numbers, is called.
- Scandium is abundant in seawater at 6×10-7 mg/L or parts per million.
- Mendeleev had predicted that scandium would be discovered. The placeholder element ekaboron was replaced by scandium.
- Sc 3+ is the most common scandium compound.
- Scandium is abundant on the Moon more than it is on Earth.
- David R. Lide, 86th edition CRC handbook of chemistry and Physics., CRC press 2005
- Bernhard, F. (2001). “Scandium mineralization associated with hydrothermal lazurite-quartz veins in the Lower Austroalpie Grobgneis complex, East Alps, Austria”.