How many valence electrons does Scandium have?

What is the valency of scandium Valence electrons

Scandium is the 21st element on the periodic table. Scandium is the element in group 3 and its symbol, ‘Sc’. Scandium is an element of a side subgroup of the third group, the fourth period of the periodic system of chemical elements of D. I. Mendeleev. Scandium is involved in the formation bonds by its valence electrons.Scandium compounds have properties that are intermediate between aluminium, ytrium. There is a diagonal relation between the behavior magnesium, and scandium. This is similar to what exists between beryllium and aluminium.

Scandium is a chemical element that is not widely known, but has the potential to be incredibly useful. With an atomic number of 21, scandium sits between calcium and titanium on the periodic table. It was first discovered in 1879 by a swedish chemist, lars nilson, while he was studying minerals from scandinavia.

Scandium has some interesting properties. It is silvery-white in color and has a melting point of 1541°c (2815°f). Its density is slightly higher than aluminum, making it very lightweight yet strong. In addition to being corrosion resistant, scandium also has a high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.

The most common use for scandium today is in aluminum-scandium alloys which are used to make aircraft parts like landing gear and fuselages as well as sporting equipment like golf clubs and bicycle frames. The lightweight strength of these alloys makes them ideal for these applications since they can withstand the rigors of use without sacrificing strength or durability.

In addition to its current uses, researchers are exploring ways that scandium could be used for more advanced applications such as fuel cells or nuclear reactors due to its ability to absorb neutrons without becoming radioactive itself. This could make it an important part of developing clean energy sources in the future.

All in all, while not widely known today, scandium has great potential for many different applications both now and in the future due to its unique combination of properties that make it light yet strong and corrosion resistant while still having excellent electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity properties.

Scandium element


It is a silvery-white metallic transition metal that was discovered in 1879 by lars fredrik nilson. This rare earth element has many interesting properties, including being one of the lightest elements, having a high melting point, and being highly reactive in air.

Since its discovery, scandium has been used in various applications, such as electronics and welding. It is also used to make special alloys for aircrafts and spacecrafts due to its light weight and strength. Additionally, scandium has been used to create powerful lasers for medical applications.

The history of scandium is quite fascinating. Nilson was able to isolate it from an ore found in scandinavia called euxenite; thus the name scandium was given to this element as it originated from that region. Since then, scientists have continued researching this element’s properties and have made great strides in understanding how it can be utilized in various industries.

Today, scandium remains an important part of modern science and technology due to its unique properties that make it useful for many different applications. Its history is quite interesting as well; it’s amazing how something so small can have such a big impact on our lives!

What represents

  • Pure scandium is an almost imperceptible substance of a silvery color with a yellowish tint, by which it can be distinguished from other light metals.
  • The structure of the crystal lattice is presented in two types depending on the temperature (temperature – 1336°C).
  • Refers to the group of rare earth metals. The first non-lanthanide by atomic number from the “rare earth triad” scandium-yttrium-lanthanum.
  • By composition, this is a monoisotope – scandium-45.
  • The international designation-symbol is Sc (Scandium).


Scandium has an array of uses in many industries. For example, it is used to make alloys that are stronger than aluminum and have higher melting points. This makes scandium ideal for use in aircrafts, rockets, and other high-performance applications. In addition to aerospace applications, scandium can also be used to make strong golf clubs and bicycle frames due to its light weight and strength combination.

Scandium also has medical benefits as well. Scandium oxide is being studied as a possible treatment for cancer because it has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in laboratory tests on animals. Additionally, scandium oxide can be used as an x-ray contrast agent which helps doctors diagnose diseases such as cancer more accurately by making them easier to see on x-rays or ct scans.

Finally, scandium has many industrial uses such as creating gas lasers which are used in welding operations or cutting materials like steel or stone into specific shapes with precision accuracy that would otherwise not be possible with traditional methods. Scandium also plays an important role in nuclear power plants where it helps control the rate at which uranium atoms split apart during the fission process that produces heat energy for electricity generation purposes.

Position of Scandium in the periodic table

Position of Scandium in the periodic table


Silvery metal that reacts well with water, tarnishes in the air and burns easily.

Scandium has health benefits

Recent studies have shown that scandium can be beneficial in treating and preventing certain diseases. It has been found to help reduce inflammation and improve the immune system’s response to infections. Scandium can also improve bone density and joint flexibility, making it useful for those with arthritis or other joint problems.

Scandium can also be used as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. This makes it useful for helping to prevent cancer and other degenerative diseases. Additionally, scandium may help reduce the risk of heart disease by improving circulation and reducing cholesterol levels in the body.

Scandium is available in supplement form or as part of a multivitamin supplement regimen recommended by your doctor or healthcare provider. As with any supplement, it’s important to consult with your doctor before taking any type of medication or supplement as there may be potential risks associated with taking too much scandium or combining certain medications or supplements with scandium intake.

Natural abundance

Scandium has been used in various industries for decades, from aerospace to medicine. In aerospace, scandium-aluminum alloys are used to make lighter and stronger materials for aircrafts and spacecrafts. In medicine, scandium-based compounds have been used as contrast agents for x-rays and mri scans.

Scandium is also essential in the production of energy efficient light bulbs, as well as fuel cells and batteries. The element can be found in a variety of products including sporting goods such as baseball bats and golf clubs, which use scandium alloys to create lighter but stronger materials than aluminum alone could provide.

The natural abundance of scandium makes it an important element for many industries that rely on its unique properties. Its relative rarity means that it must be mined carefully so that its resources are not depleted too quickly or too severely impacted by environmental contamination from mining operations. As technology advances, so do the uses of this valuable chemical element; its importance will likely continue to grow in the years ahead!

atomic number21
atomic weight44.95591
boiling point2,836 °C (5,137 °F)
melting point1,541 °C (2,806 °F)
specific gravity2.989 (24 °C, or 75 °F)
oxidation state+3
electron configuration[Ar]3d14s2

Scandium effects on the environment

Scandium is an essential component of many industrial processes. It helps to improve the efficiency and productivity of certain industrial processes, which reduces energy consumption and emissions. In addition, it can help to reduce waste by allowing for more efficient recycling of materials.

Scandium also has positive effects on air quality due to its ability to remove sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants. This helps reduce acid rain and other air pollutants that can adversely affect human health.

Finally, scandium has been shown to improve crop yields when used as a soil additive due to its ability to increase nutrient uptake by plants. This could potentially lead to increased food security in areas where access to nutrients is limited or difficult due to environmental constraints.

Technology of obtaining

The extraction of scandium is a multi-stage costly process:

  • The first to receive hydropookcide. For this, tungsten ore waste is burned, treated with water, ammonia and sulfuric acid.
  • The hydroxide is dehydrated (620-730°C).
  • The resulting oxide is removed from impurities, divided into fractions.
  • Highly pure material (metal oxide) is obtained by refining plus calcination.

The second method of obtaining prevents the conversion of oxide into fluoride:

  • The raw material is treated twice with hydrogen fluoride.
  • A mixture of metallic skandium and slag is melted and separated in vacuum.
  • Fluoride scandium is reduced with metallic calcium.
  • Vacuum distillation is used to obtain a product of 95%+ purity.

Biological role

It has no biological function. It is suspected to be a carcinogen.

What are the valence elements of Scandium (Sc)?

The 1st element in group-3 is scandium. The elements of groups 3-12 are known as transition elements. The total number of electrons in a last orbit is called the valence electron. The valence electrons of transition elements are kept in the outer shell (orbit) however. The electron configuration in scandium(Sc), indicates that the last electrons have entered the d-orbital. The properties of an element are determined by the valence electrons, which also participate in the formation bonds.

What are the valence electrons of scandium (Sc)

What number of protons, electrons, and neutrons does a scanningdium atom contain?

The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. Scandium (Sc) has an atomic number 21. The number of protons is called the atomic number. This is scandium 21’s number of protons. The nucleus contains an electron shell that is equal to the protons. A scandium atom can have a total number of twenty-one electrons.

The difference between the number atoms and the number atomic masses is what determines the number neutrons in an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).

We know that scandium’s atomic number 21 is the highest and that its atomic mass number is 45.9591u. Neutron (n) = 45 – 21 = 24. The number of neutrons found in scandium (Sc) is therefore 24.

Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).

How can you find the number of valence atoms in a scandium (Sc) atom?

These are the steps to determine the valence electrons. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of an electron. It is easy to determine the value electrons for all elements by knowing the electron configuration. Bohr’s Atomic Model cannot determine the valence electrons for the transition element. The inner shell contains the valence electrons for the transition elements. The Aufbau principle allows you to determine the valence electron for a transition element. We will now learn how to determine scandium’s valence electron (Sc).

Calculating the total number electrons

First, we must know the number of electrons within the scandium atom. You need to know how many protons are in scandium to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons, you must know the atomic number for the scandium element. A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the atomic numbers of the scandium elements. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons.

This means that we can now say that the number of electrons in the scandium-atom is equal to its atomic number. The periodic table shows that scandium’s atomic number (Sc) is 21. This means that the total electron count for scandium atoms is 21.

The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.

You will need to conduct electron configuration of scandium (Sc)

Important step 2 is. This step is crucial. The electron configuration of scandium shows the following: the first shell contains two electrons, while the second shell has eight electrons. The third shell has nine electrons, and the fourth shell has two. The electron configuration for scandium through the sub orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2.

Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell

The third step is to determine the orbit of the valence shell. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. The total number of electrons found in a valenceshell is called valence electrons. The inner orbit contains the valence electrons for transition elements. The valence electrons for the transition element must be calculated by adding the total electrons from the d-orbital and the electrons in last orbit of the Atom. The electron configuration for scandium shows that the last scandium shell has two (4s2) electrons, while the d-orbital contains a total electron (3d1). The valence electrons for scandium (Sc) are therefore three.

  1.  The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
  2. The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
  3. The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
  4. The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.

What number of valence electrons does the scandium ion (Sc3+) have?

During bond formation, elements with 1, 2, or three electrons in their last shell donate electrons from the previous shell. Cations are elements that donate electrons to form bonds. Scandium donates an electron from the last shell in order to form bonds, and then becomes a scandium (Sc3+). This is why scandium is called a cation element.

How many valence electrons does scandium ion (Sc3+) have

Scandium ion , has an electron configuration of  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s1 4px. This electron configuration shows that scandium ion (Sc3+) has three shells, while the last shell contains eight electrons. This electron configuration indicates that the scandium (Sc3+), has obtained the electron structure of argon. The valency for the scandium ion in this instance is +3. The valence electrons for scandium (Sc3+) are eight, since the last shell in a scandium-ion has eight electrons.

What is the valency for scandium?

Valency (or valence) is the ability of an atom of an element in a molecule to join another atom during formation. There are a few rules that can be used to determine valency. The valency of an element is the number of electrons found in an unpaired state within the shell following the electron configuration. The electron configuration of an element in its excited state determines the valency. Sc*(21), the electron configuration in scandium’s excited state, is Sc*(21). It equals 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s1 4px1 .This shows that scandium has three unpaired electrons.

What is the valency of scandium

The valency of scandium therefore is 3.


  • Scandium was named for Scandinavia. Lars Nilson, a chemist, was trying to isolate the element of ytterbium form the minerals gadolinite and euxenite when he discovered scandium. These minerals were found primarily in Scandinavia.
  • Scandium is abundant in the Earth’s crust at 22 mg/kg (or portions per million).
  • Scandium, the transition metal with the lowest number of atomic numbers, is called.
  • Scandium is abundant in seawater at 6×10-7 mg/L or parts per million.
  • Mendeleev had predicted that scandium would be discovered. The placeholder element ekaboron was replaced by scandium.
  • Sc 3+ is the most common scandium compound.
  • Scandium is abundant on the Moon more than it is on Earth.


Alexander Stephenson

Candidate of Chemical Sciences, editor-in-chief of Lecturer at several international online schools, member of the jury of chemistry competitions and author of scientific articles.

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  1. Robert

    Thanks for the full information, it came in handy for my report on chemistry!