How many valence electrons does Phosphorus have?

What is the valency of phosphorus(P) Valence electrons

Phosphorus is the fifteenth element in the periodic table. Phosphorus is the element in group 15. Its symbol is “P”.

Phosphorus is an essential chemical element that has a wide variety of uses. It is one of the most important elements in the body, and it plays a vital role in many biological processes. Phosphorus is found in every cell of the human body, and it plays a key role in metabolism, energy production, and cell growth. It also helps to maintain healthy bones and teeth.

Phosphorus is also used for industrial purposes. It can be used as an additive to fertilizers to increase crop yields, or as an ingredient in detergents to make them more effective. Phosphorus compounds are also used in fire retardants, smoke detectors, and even toothpaste!

Phosphorus has been known since ancient times but it was first isolated by german alchemist hennig brandt in 1669 when he boiled urine until it turned into a white powdery substance which he called «phosphor». This powder was later identified as phosphorus by carl wilhelm scheele in 1777 who named it after the greek word «phōs» meaning «light» or «shine».

The importance of phosphorus cannot be overstated — from its use as an essential nutrient for life to its industrial applications — making this chemical element invaluable across many different areas. Its versatility makes phosphorus one of the most important elements on earth today!


Phosphorus element


The earliest known use of phosphorus was by the ancient egyptians around 1500 bc. They used it to make mummies glow and for medicine, believing that it had healing properties. Phosphorus was also used by other ancient cultures such as the greeks and romans to make fireworks, candles, and matches.

In 1669, german alchemist hennig brand discovered phosphorus while experimenting with urine in hamburg. He was able to isolate white phosphorus from his experiments which he called «cold fire» due to its ability to glow in the dark without burning or producing heat. This discovery made phosphorus widely available for use in a variety of products such as medicines, fertilizers, and explosives.

In 1845 british chemist john davy discovered red phosphorus which is much less reactive than white phosphorus making it safer for use in matches and other products. By the end of the 19th century phosphates were being used as fertilizers on farms around europe leading to increased crop production which helped end famine in some areas of europe at that time.

Today phosphorus continues to be an important element both commercially and scientifically with applications ranging from fertilizers to semiconductors and lasers. Its importance can be seen from its long history stretching all the way back to ancient egypt when it was first used for medicinal purposes thousands of years ago!

Headline: a look back at phosphorus: the chemical element’s long history
Phosphorus is an essential element found naturally occurring on earth that has been used throughout history for various purposes — from medicine by ancient egyptians thousands of years ago all the way up through today where it’s found in everything from fertilizers to semiconductors! In 1669 german alchemist hennig brand first isolated white phosphorus while experimenting with urine which he called «cold fire» due its ability glow without burning or producing heat — this discovery made phosphorus widely available for use across various industries like medicines, explosives, matches etc.. Then 1845 british chemist john davy discovered red phosphorus which was much less reactive than white making it safer for products like matches etc.. By late 19th century phosphates were being used as fertilizer on farms throughout europe leading increased crop production & ending famine some areas! Today we still rely heavily on this chemical element & see its importance stretching back centuries!


Phosphorus is an essential chemical element with a wide range of uses. It is found in nature as part of the phosphate mineral and can be used in many different industries. Phosphorus has been used for centuries to make fertilizers, detergents, and even fireworks. In more recent times, it has also been used in the production of semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food additives.

Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plants and animals alike. It helps to strengthen cell walls, promote photosynthesis, and increase growth rate. As a result, phosphorus-based fertilizers are commonly used to improve crop yields and help maintain soil fertility. Additionally, phosphorus-based detergents are often used to clean fabrics because they are effective at removing dirt and oil from surfaces without damaging them.

Phosphorus is also essential for human health as it helps with the formation of bones and teeth as well as aiding in energy metabolism processes within cells. It can be found naturally in foods such as meat, eggs, dairy products, nuts, legumes and grains or added to food products through fortification or enrichment processes.

The use of phosphorus does not come without its drawbacks however as it can easily become contaminated by heavy metals when released into water systems through wastewater runoff or fertilizer application on soil surfaces which can have adverse effects on aquatic life if not managed correctly. Despite this risk though phosphorus remains an important chemical element with a wide range of uses that benefit both humans and the environment alike!

Health effects of phosphorus

Excess phosphorus can cause a variety of health problems. High levels of phosphorus can lead to calcification of the arteries, resulting in increased risk for heart disease and stroke. It can also lead to kidney damage and other organ dysfunction due to its ability to interfere with calcium absorption. Furthermore, high levels of phosphorus have been linked to an increased risk for certain types of cancer such as prostate cancer.

The good news is that most people get enough phosphorus from their diets without having to supplement with additional sources. However, those who are at risk for phosphate toxicity should be mindful about their consumption levels and consult their doctor before taking any supplements or making dietary changes that could increase their intake significantly. Additionally, individuals who are on dialysis may need extra phosphorus from dietary sources or supplements since their bodies cannot absorb it as well as healthy individuals do.

Position of Phosphorus in the periodic table

Position of Phosphorus in the periodic table

Allotropes of Phosphorus

White Phosphorus

White phosphorus, the most dangerous allotrope of this element, is white phosphorus. It is a translucent, waxy substance that glows in the dark. White phosphorus can spontaneously ignite when exposed to air. Contact with skin can cause severe burns. White phosphorus can burn and form phosphorus pentoxide.

White phosphorus can be extremely dangerous and cause serious harm or even death. When exposed to heat and light, it slowly becomes red phosphorus. This is why white phosphorus often appears yellow.

Four phosphorus atoms are connected to each other in closed rings by covalent bonds in white phosphorus molecules. This configuration creates strain in the molecule and explains its highly reactive properties.

Violet Phosphorus

Violet phosphorus is the most reactive of allotropes. It reacts slowly to halogens. It appears almost all-black but slightly purple crystalline solid.

The heating of red phosphorus or the dissolution of white phosphorus by molten lead can create violet phosphorus. Scientists continue to study its lattice structure with x-ray difffraction methods.

Black Phosphorus

Red phosphorus has a higher level of reactiveness than black phosphorus. Black phosphorus appears as a black, lustrous and crystalline solid. These molecules are made up of crystal lattices, which form by the linking of existing P-P–P bonds.

Black phosphorus comes in two forms: a-black and b-black. The heating of redphosphorus results in the formation of the more stable form. The latter, which is more reactive, can be synthesized by heating white phosphorus under high pressure.

This configuration gives black phosphorus a greater degree of stability due to the higher bond angle. Black phosphorus is a less reactive allotrope than sulfur, oxygen, and halogens.

Red Phosphorus

This allotrope is more toxic than its counterpart. It appears as a powdery, red-ironed, lustrous substance. Red phosphorus has a higher stability and is less dangerous than white. You can extract it from small amounts of striker strips on match boxes.

Red phosphorus is formed when white phosphorus rings are polymerized via covalent bonds to create straight chains. These chains reduce intramolecular strain and decrease reactivity.

atomic number15
atomic weight30.9738
boiling point (white)280 °C (536 °F)
melting point (white)44.1 °C (111.4 °F)
density (white)1.82 gram/cm3 at 20 °C (68 °F)
oxidation states−3, +3, +5
electron configuration1s22s22p63s23p3

Natural abundance

Phosphorus is a key component of the human body, as it helps to create strong bones and teeth and helps with energy production. It also helps to regulate hormones and body temperature. Phosphorus plays an important role in plant nutrition, as it helps with photosynthesis, respiration, cell division, protein synthesis and other growth processes.

The natural abundance of phosphorus depends on the availability of phosphorus-containing minerals such as apatite or phosphorite deposits. These deposits can be found around the world but are most concentrated in certain areas such as north america, europe and asia. The amount of phosphorus present in soil also affects its natural abundance; soils that are low in phosphorus tend to have less availability for plants than those with higher amounts of phosphorus present.

Biological role

Phosphorus is an essential chemical element for life on earth, playing a vital role in many biological processes. It is found in the form of phosphate ions in cells and tissues, and is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth. Phosphorus also helps to regulate energy metabolism, cell growth and reproduction, as well as muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission.

In addition to its role as a major component of cellular structures, phosphorus plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Phosphate compounds are used in energy transfer reactions within cells, while phospholipids form the membranes that surround cells. Phosphorus also helps to activate enzymes that are involved in dna replication and repair.

Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plants too; it is required for photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation. Without phosphorus plants would not be able to produce food or oxygen from sunlight.

What are the valence electrons for phosphorus (P)?

P is the second element in group-15. The total number of electrons in a last orbit is called the valence electron. The valence electrons (P) are the total number of electrons remaining in the shell after the electron configuration is complete. The properties and formation of bonds are controlled by the valence electrons. P is the fifteenth element on the periodic table.

What are the valence electrons for phosphorus (P)

What number of electrons, protons, and neutrons does P (phosphorus) possess?

The nucleus can be found in the middle of an atom. The nucleus is home to protons and neutrons. 15. The number of protons in a phosphorus atom is called the atomic number. The number of protons found in phosphorus is fifteen. The nucleus contains a circular shell containing electrons that are equal to protons. The phosphorus atom is composed of 15 electrons.

The difference between the number atomic masses and the number atoms is what determines the number neutrons within an element. This means that neutron number (n) = atomic mass (A) + atomic number (Z).

We know that the atomic quantity of phosphorus (n) is 15, and that its atomic mass is 31 (30.97376200u). Neutron (n) = 31 – 15 = 16. The number of neutrons found in phosphorus (P) is therefore 16.

Valence is the ability of an atom of a chemical element to form a certain number of chemical bonds with other atoms. It takes values from 1 to 8 and cannot be equal to 0. It is determined by the number of electrons of an atom spent to form chemical bonds with another atom. The valence is a real value. Numerical values of valence are indicated with roman numerals (I,II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII).

How can you find the number of valence neutrons in a phosphorus (P) atom?

Following a few steps, you can determine the valence electrons. One of these is the electron configuration. Without an electron configuration, it is impossible to determine the valence of an electron. It is easy to find the value electrons for all elements by knowing the electron configuration. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration. You can find it here. This article focuses on electron configuration.

However, it is possible to identify valence electrons by placing electrons according the Bohr principle. We will now learn how to identify the valence electron for phosphorus (P).

Calculating the number of electrons in phosphorus (P)

1st we need to know the total number of electrons in the Phosphorus (P) atom. You need to know how many protons are in phosphorus to determine the number electrons. To know the number protons, you must know the atomic number for the phosphorus element.

A periodic table is required to determine the atomic number. The periodic table contains the atomic number for phosphorus (P) elements. The number of protons is called the atomic number. The nucleus also contains electrons that are equal to protons. This means that electrons are equal to the number of protons in the phosphorus-atom atom. The atomic number for phosphorus is 15 according to the periodic table. This means that a phosphorus atom contains a total number of fifteen electrons.

The terms “oxidation degree” and “valence” may not be the same, but they are numerically almost identical. The conditional charge of an atom’s atom is called the oxidation state. It can be either positive or negative. Valence refers to the ability of an atom form bonds. It cannot have a negative value.

You will need to perform electron configuration of the phosphorus (P)

Important step 2. This step involves the arrangement of electrons for phosphorus (P). The phosphorus atom contains a total number of fifteen electrons. The electron configuration of phosphorus shows there are two electrons within the K shell, eight inside the L shell and five in M shell(orbit). The first shell of phosphorus (P) has two electrons while the second shell has eight and the third shell has five electrons. There are 2, 8 electrons in each shell of phosphorus. The electron configuration for phosphorus in the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3. This site has an article that explains the electron configuration for phosphorus(P). You can read it if interested.

Calculate the total electrons and determine the valence shell

The third step is to determine the orbit of the valence shell. The valence shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. A valence electron is the total number of electrons found in a valenceshell. The electron configuration for phosphorus indicates that the last shell has five electrons. The valence electrons for phosphorus (P) have five.

  1.  The valence is a numerical characteristic of the ability of atoms of a given element to bond with other atoms.
  2. The valence of hydrogen is constant and equal to one.
  3. The valence of oxygen is also constant and equal to two.
  4. The valence of most of the other elements is not constant. It can be determined by the formulas of their binary compounds with hydrogen or oxygen.

Phosphorus compound formation (P)

Through its valence electrons, phosphate(P) is involved in the formation bonds. This valence electron is involved in the formation bonds with other elements’ atoms. By sharing electrons with other elements, phosphate atoms create bonds. The electron configuration for chlorine indicates that there are seven value electrons in chlorine. By sharing electrons, three chlorine atoms make phosphorus trichloride (PCl 3) compounds.

Compound formation of phosphorus(P)

The phosphorus (P) atom thus completes its octave, and gains the electron configuration of Argon. The electron configuration of argon is also acquired by chlorine.

Compound formation of phosphorus(P) (balanced)

One phosphorus element shares electrons with three atoms of chlorine to form the compound phosphorus trichloride (PCl 3). This is done by forming a covalent bond. Phosphorus trichloride(PCl3) is covalent bonding.

What number of valence electrons does the phosphorus ion (P 3) possess?

During bond formation, elements with 5, 6, or 7 electrons in their last shells receive electrons from the shells that contain them. Anions are elements that have electrons and can form bonds. Phosphorus(P) is an example of an anion element. The last shell of phosphorus receives electrons during the formation of a bond and transforms them into phosphorus (P3).

How many valence electrons does phosphorus ion(P3-) have

ion(P3-) electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6. The electron configuration for phosphorus shows that the ion has three shells, while the third shell contains eight electrons. This electron configuration shows the phosphorus has the electron arrangement of argon. In this instance, the valence for phosphorus ions (P 3) was -3. The valence electrons for phosphorus (P 3) have eight electrons since the shell that contains the last phosphorus ison has eight.

What is the valency for phosphorus (P)?

Valency (or valence) is the ability of an element’s atom to join another atom in the formation of a molecule. The valency is the number of unpaired electrons found in an element’s last orbit. Ground state electron configuration for phosphorus is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3px1 3py1 3pz1 3dxy1. This electron configuration shows three unpaired electrons are present in the last orbit for phosphorus. The valency of the Phosphorus atom is therefore 3.

The electron configuration of an element in its excited state determines its value. In the excited state, Phosphorus(P*)  electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3px1 3py1 3pz1 3dxy1. This electron configuration shows us that the last shell containing a phosphorus atom contains five unpaired electrons. The bond formation determines the valency of phosphorus.

What is the valency of phosphorus(P)

The valency for phosphorus is therefore 5.

Phosphorus Facts:

  • The seventh most frequent element is phosphorus.
  • Hennig Brand isolated the phosphorus from his urine. Instead of keeping his secret, he decided to make the process available to other alchemists. The French Academy of Sciences sold his process, making it more well-known.
  • Green glow is produced by the oxidation in air of white phosphorus. While “phosphorescence” is used to describe the element’s glow it actually refers only to its oxidation. Chemiluminescence is the glow of phosphorus.
  • The sixth most common element in the human body is phosphorus.
  • Phosphorus, the eighteenth most abundant element in seawater, is also known as phosphorus.
  • Carl Wilhelm Scheele’s method for extracting phosphorus bones from bones replaced Brand’s.
  • White phosphorus was used in early matches. When workers were over-exposed, this practice led to the painful and debilitating deformation in the jawbone called ‘phossy’.


  • Mary Elvira Weeks, The discovery of the elements. II. Elements known to the alchemists J. Chem. Educ., 1932.
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, The discovery of the elements. XXI. Supplementary note on the discovery of phosphorus J. Chem. Educ., 1933.
  • Egon Wiberg; Nils Wiberg; Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press.
  • Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). “Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds”. Inorganic Chemistry.
  • Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; King, R. Bruce; Schaefer, Iii; Schleyer, Paul v. R.; Robinson, Gregory H. (2008). “Carbene-Stabilized Diphosphorus”. Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Alexander Stephenson

Candidate of Chemical Sciences, editor-in-chief of Lecturer at several international online schools, member of the jury of chemistry competitions and author of scientific articles.

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