Because chemistry is a foundation for understanding fundamental and applied scientific disciplines at an elementary level, it is commonly referred to as the core science.
A person could expect to be able to learn all aspects of chemistry by the end of the 16th or 17th centuries, which was the era of early Chemistry. Technology and science have advanced a lot in the past few decades. Modern chemistry can easily be broken down into several key disciplines that focus on particular chemical concepts.
We have listed below a variety of chemistry types that deal with specific aspects of the universe.
- 1. Physical chemistry
- 2. Organic chemistry
- 3. Inorganic Chemistry
- 4. Analytical chemistry
- 5. Nuclear chemistry
- 6. Biochemistry
- 7. Computational chemistry
- 8. Quantum Chemistry
- 9. Astrochemistry
- 10. Phytochemistry
- 11. Green chemistry
- What are the most frequently asked questions?
- What are the main chemical reactions?
- There are many types of chemical bonds.
- Who is known as the father or chemistry?
1. Physical chemistry
It is crucial to understand the distribution of electrons around the nuclei and atoms in order to fully comprehend the nature of the atoms. This is the subject of quantum chemistry, a special field. It has special laws and tools that can be used to determine the shape and strength, movement and electron change of the nuclei, and how they move.
Photochemistry, which studies light’s interaction with matter, is another important area. This is essential for spectroscopy (a fundamental research tool to determine the type and composition of chemicals in a compound).
Because different substances interact differently with light, it is possible to identify them based upon how they interact. This enabled us to identify the composition of distant celestial objects such as comets, planets and asteroids.
Physical chemists employ sophisticated equipment like electron microscopes and nuclear magnetic resonance. Analyze substances, create methods for testing and determining their properties, discover their potential uses, and make theories. They can also use massive data math and simulations in order to predict how these substances react over time.
2. Organic chemistry
We study compounds with covalently-bonded carbon atoms in organic chemistry. Like other atoms carbon can form chains with various elements like nitrogen, oxygen and halogens. It can create millions of organic compound, which can then be made up any number other elements.
This branch of chemistry studies the chemical structure, physical properties and chemical composition of organic compounds. It also involves the assessment of the chemical reactivity and behavior of organic compounds.
Organic chemistry is crucial in the development common household chemicals, foods, and fuels. This field has made great strides in the development of our society. For example, the synthesis of polymers, which includes all plastics, rubber products, numerous drugs, and other useful compounds, like ethanol or insulin.
Since all of life is based upon organic compounds, many professions require a basic understanding of organic chemical chemistry. This includes pharmacologists and dentists as well as chemists, doctors, veterinarians, and chemical engineers.
3. Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic chemistry is the study of compounds that don’t have a carbon/hydrogen bond. There are about 100,000 inorganic substances on Earth. This field studies the structure and behavior these compounds.
Inorganic substances include silicon dioxide, which is used in solar cells as well as computer chips, and sulfuric acid which is used in fertilizers and household goods. You can classify them all as bases, acid, oxides, salts.
The transformation of materials and compounds is required for the synthesis of organic chemicals. They can undergo four types of chemical reaction: combination, degradation, single substitution or double substitution.
Organometallic chemistry is an area that is rapidly growing. This bridges organic and inorganic chemical chemistry. It refers to compounds that have at least one bond with a carbon atom or a metal atom. Organometallic compound are often used in scientific research. They are also used as catalysts to accelerate chemical reactions, particularly when they target pharmaceuticals or other polymers.
Inorganic substances are generally a major contributor to the world’s economy. They are used for a wide range of industrial processes, including coatings, pigmentation, surfactants (catalysis), coating, medicine, materials science and electronic devices.
4. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry employs advanced methods and tools to isolate and identify compounds and quantify their presence in a product.
It can be divided into quantitative and qualitative analysis. The first can be used to determine the absolute amount or relative amounts of one or more substances in a compound. The second pertains to determining a compound’s quality, regardless of its quantity or concentration.
For example, analyzing magnetite for iron is a qualitative analysis. However, measuring iron’s actual content in magnetite (72.3% mass) is a quantitative analysis.
Analytical chemistry can be used in many areas of science. Analytical chemistry can be used, for example, to identify and quantify unknown substances at crime scenes or determine the amount cholesterol in blood samples. It can also be used to clean motor oil. It has many applications in bioanalysis, clinical, forensics and materials analysis.
5. Nuclear chemistry
Nuclear chemistry studies the effects of radioactivity and nuclear energy on the nuclei. Radioactive elements can be found in some elements of the Earth’s crust. They emit radiation spontaneously (eg, alpha, beta and gamma radiation).
Nuclear reactions transform one element into the other, rather than ordinary chemical reactions which form compounds. This property is used by nuclear power plants to store and capture nuclear energy.
The field of modern nuclear chemistry (often called radiochemistry) is used for a variety of purposes, including the development radioactive diagnostic methods and the study the formation of elements within the universe.
The achievements of nuclear scientists have been so influential that biologists, physicists, and geologists now use nuclear chemistry in their fields.
Radiation chemistry and radiochemistry are combined to analyze nuclear reactions, such as fusion or fission. Particularly, nuclear fusion releases huge amounts of energy, and is often referred to as a “thermonuclear reaction”. In reality, the sun and other stars in our universe are giant fusion generators. These stars are home to hydrogen molecules that, under enormous pressure from gravitational forces, fuse into heavier elements and helium. The reaction produces a lot of heat and light, which results in a large amount of energy.
Nuclear chemistry also includes processes that occur in areas other than radioactive. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, for example, is widespread in physical chemistry, synthetic organ chemistry, and macromolecular.
Biochemistry refers to the study of chemicals and processes in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It also examines the changes they go through throughout their lives.
It is actually a laboratory science that blends biology and chemistry. It examines the inner workings of living cells and how they communicate while fighting or growing disease. It first studies the structure and functions of biological macromolecules including carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acid, as well as their interactions.
Biochemistry, although still a new science that has been known since the end 19th century, successfully explains living processes via structural biology, metabolism, and enzymology.
Biochemistry is also the term for the tools and techniques needed to understand how biological molecules work. This includes traditional methods such as chromatography, Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation analysis.
It is generally interconnected with a variety of scientific disciplines such as microbiology, genetics and medicine, as well as forensic science.
Other areas that are in development
7. Computational chemistry
Computing chemistry, as the name implies, uses computer simulations to compute the properties and structures compounds or groups. Even though this description is not accurate, it does allow for the explanation of some chemical phenomena in a quantitative or qualitative computational scheme.
The advances in computing hardware and software are used by engineers and chemical scientists. The use of GPUs and massively parallel CPUs to solve complex problems is the basis of most of the new discoveries.
Supercomputer modeling has allowed us to better understand the copper-catalyzed cyclepropanation, zinc–catalyzedalkylation, and the origins of enantioselectivity for transition metal-catalyzed-asymmetric synthesis.
8. Quantum Chemistry
Simply stated, quantum chemistry refers to the study and analysis of very small particles. This field emerged from the discovery subatomic particles such as neutrons, protons, and electrons.
The Schrodinger equations are the key to understanding electronic structure and molecular dynamics. This is the goal of quantum chemistry. Erwin Schrodinger created a mathematical equation which showed that the potential energy acting upon an object can be measured by the wave function. This equation was developed in 1926. You can then determine the properties of the object by obtaining the wave function.
For large atoms and molecules, which contain more than one atom, it is impossible to find the Schrodinger-wave equation’s exact solution. Quantum chemistry strives for simple assumption/approximation and improved solution accuracy for small and large molecular systems.
Recent advances in quantum mechanical modeling techniques like density functional theory have made it possible for precision comparable to that found in experiments with small molecules.
Astrochemistry is the science of studying the chemical compositions in space. It can be applied to both the interstellar medium and the solar system.
Astrochemists who are both astronomers as well as chemists analyze the molecules and the ions in space to discover their roles in the universe. This includes the atoms of the future asteroids and stars’ gaseous matter, as well as entire solar system molecules.
Radio telescopes of various types are used to detect electromagnetic radiation from celestial bodies. By knowing the frequency of electromagnetic waves (radio-, gamma-, ultraviolet and infrared), it is possible to determine the number of molecules in space. The data can then be combined with information from meteorology and astrophysics, to better understand how the universe originated.
The study of the chemical processes that are involved in plant life, and the chemical compounds made by plants is phytochemistry. Its main purpose is to study phytochemicals, which can be used in foods such as vegetables, grains, and fruits that provide health benefits above the standard diet.
Many nutritionally-important foods and beverages contain phytochemicals. The most popular phytochemicals that offer significant health benefits are flavonoids (isoflavonoids), phytosterols and glucosinolates.
Phytochemists attempt to identify the structure of different secondary metabolites found within plants. They also investigate how these compounds are used in human and plant biology.
There are many kinds of compounds that can be found in plants. The majority of them can be classified into four types of biosynthetic class: terpenoids (polyketides), phenylpropanoids (alkaloids), and terpenoids.
11. Green chemistry
Minimize the use and production of hazardous/undesirable chemical processes and substances.
Green chemistry focuses on the creation and optimization of chemical processes that produce toxic substances.
Contrary to environmental chemistry that focuses solely on the adverse effects of polluting chemical on the environment, green-chemistry focuses instead on reducing the use of nonrenewable resources and developing pollution prevention strategies.
Paul Anastas, one the founders and pioneers of green chemistry, published twelve principles in 1998. They consider different ways to minimize the negative effects of chemical production on the environment. These principles include:
- Reduce waste
- Designs that utilize the least amount of raw material
- Avoid toxic chemicals
- Develop safer chemicals
- Create safer solvents, excipients
- Make chemical process more energy-efficient
- Renewable raw materials
- Avoid unnecessary production of derivatives
- Non-toxic catalysts are recommended
- Products that can be easily broken down into non-harmful substances are recommended
- Monitoring the whole process in real-time allows you to stop dangerous substances from being generated.
- Avoid accidental releases, fires, explosions, and other hazards.
Although these principles are not novel, their widespread application has led to greater attention from industry, academia and regulatory agencies.
What are the most frequently asked questions?
What are the main chemical reactions?
There are many chemical reactions that can occur in nature. But most of them can be divided into six categories: combination reaction.
There are many types of chemical bonds.
There are four main types in chemistry:
- Covalent bonds are made by atoms that share electrons.
- Hydrogen bonds: An interaction between hydrogen atoms located between two pairs of strongly electronegative elements.
- Ionic bonds are electrostatic attraction between oppositely chargedions.
- Van der Waals Intermolecular Interactions: Intermolecular interaction that does not contain covalent bonds or ions.
Who is known as the father or chemistry?
Jabir ibn Hayyan, also known as the father in early chemistry, is well-known. He established a system of chemical classification. He also invented a chemical method to make an inorganic compound, ammonium chloride, from organic matter (such blood, hair, or plants).
Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist is the father and founder of modern chemistry. He identified oxygen in 1778, and explained its role in combustion. He established later that water is a compound and not an essential element.
Lavoisier was responsible for creating the first comprehensive list and refining chemical nomenclature. He was the first to recognize the existence and benefits of silicon. He also demonstrated that matter can take on a new form and shape but retain its mass.